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Table of Contents

]

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 30, 2024

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _____ to _____

Commission file number: 001-33170

Graphic

NETLIST, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

95-4812784

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

111 Academy, Suite 100

Irvine, California

92617

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(949) 435-0025

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes    No 

As of April 30, 2024, there were 255,588,584 outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock.

Table of Contents

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Form 10-Q

For the Quarter Ended March 30, 2024

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

PART I. — FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1

Financial Statements

3

Item 2

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

22

Item 3

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

28

Item 4

Controls and Procedures

28

PART II. — OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1

Legal Proceedings

29

Item 1A

Risk Factors

29

Item 5

Other Information

56

Item 6

Exhibits

57

SIGNATURES

58

2

Table of Contents

PART I. — FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.

Financial Statements

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(In thousands, except par value)

March 30,

December 30,

    

2024

    

2023

ASSETS

Current Assets:

Cash and cash equivalents

$

28,736

$

40,445

Restricted cash

12,400

12,400

Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $76 (2024) and $68 (2023)

4,529

4,562

Inventories

15,169

12,031

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

1,153

441

Total current assets

61,987

69,879

Property and equipment, net

722

770

Operating lease right-of-use assets

1,423

1,590

Other assets

484

560

Total assets

$

64,616

$

72,799

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY

Current Liabilities:

Accounts payable

$

43,042

$

39,831

Revolving line of credit

4,381

3,844

Accrued payroll and related liabilities

1,585

1,346

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

3,559

2,569

Debt due within one year

377

Total current liabilities

52,944

47,590

Operating lease liabilities

1,072

1,213

Other liabilities

249

237

Total liabilities

54,265

49,040

Commitments and contingencies

Stockholders' equity:

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value—10,000 shares authorized: Series A preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 1,000 shares authorized; none issued and outstanding

Common stock, $0.001 par value—450,000 shares authorized; 255,589 (2024) and 253,593 (2023) shares issued and outstanding

256

254

Additional paid-in capital

310,886

307,328

Accumulated deficit

(300,791)

(283,823)

Total stockholders' equity

10,351

23,759

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity

$

64,616

$

72,799

See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

3

Table of Contents

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations (Unaudited)

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

    

2024

    

2023

Net sales

$

35,807

$

9,021

Cost of sales

35,092

8,461

Gross profit

715

560

Operating expenses:

Research and development

2,441

2,301

Intellectual property legal fees

12,540

11,070

Selling, general and administrative

3,116

3,030

Total operating expenses

18,097

16,401

Operating loss

(17,382)

(15,841)

Other income, net:

Interest income, net

377

56

Other income (expense), net

38

(3)

Total other income, net

415

53

Loss before provision for income taxes

(16,967)

(15,788)

Provision for income taxes

1

Net loss

$

(16,968)

$

(15,788)

Loss per share:

Basic and diluted

$

(0.07)

$

(0.07)

Weighted-average common shares outstanding:

Basic and diluted

254,931

235,121

See accompanying Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Statements.

4

Table of Contents

B

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders Equity (Unaudited)

(In thousands)

Additional

Total

Common Stock

Paid-in

Accumulated

Stockholders'

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Deficit

    

Equity

Balance, December 30, 2023

253,593

$

254

$

307,328

$

(283,823)

$

23,759

Net loss

(16,968)

(16,968)

Issuance of common stock, net

1,244

1

2,130

2,131

Exercise of stock options

78

62

62

Stock-based compensation

1,374

1,374

Restricted stock units vested and distributed

678

1

(1)

Tax withholdings related to net share settlements of equity awards

(4)

(7)

(7)

Balance, March 30, 2024

255,589

$

256

$

310,886

$

(300,791)

$

10,351

Additional

Total

Common Stock

Paid-in

Accumulated

Stockholders'

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Deficit

    

Equity

Balance, December 31, 2022

232,557

$

233

$

250,428

$

(223,425)

$

27,236

Net loss

(15,788)

(15,788)

Issuance of common stock, net

4,920

5

10,537

10,542

Exercise of stock options

381

264

264

Stock-based compensation

1,077

1,077

Restricted stock units vested and distributed

712

1

(1)

Balance, April 1, 2023

238,570

$

239

$

262,305

$

(239,213)

$

23,331

See accompanying Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Statements.

5

Table of Contents

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)

(In thousands)

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

    

2024

    

2023

Cash flows from operating activities:

Net loss

$

(16,968)

$

(15,788)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

Depreciation and amortization

85

99

Non-cash lease expense

167

166

Stock-based compensation

1,374

1,077

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

Accounts receivable

33

2,300

Inventories

(3,138)

1,727

Prepaid expenses and other assets

(136)

261

Accounts payable

3,211

(2,098)

Accrued payroll and related liabilities

239

(316)

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

915

(142)

Net cash used in operating activities

(14,218)

(12,714)

Cash flows from investing activities:

Acquisition of property and equipment

(37)

Net cash used in investing activities

(37)

Cash flows from financing activities:

Net borrowings (repayments) under line of credit

537

(4,935)

Principal repayments under finance lease

(54)

(52)

Payments on notes payable

(123)

(146)

Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net

2,131

10,542

Proceeds from exercise of stock options and warrants

62

264

Payments for taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards

(7)

Net cash provided by financing activities

2,546

5,673

Net change in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

(11,709)

(7,041)

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period

52,845

43,611

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

$

41,136

$

36,570

Reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period:

Cash and cash equivalents

$

28,736

$

34,470

Restricted cash

12,400

2,100

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

$

41,136

$

36,570

See accompanying Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Statements.

6

Table of Contents

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

Note 1—Description of Business

Netlist, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries (collectively the “Company,” “Netlist,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) provides high-performance memory solutions to enterprise customers in diverse industries. Our products, in various capacities and form factors, including our line of custom and specialty memory products, bring leading performance to customers in a variety of industries globally. Netlist also licenses its intellectual property.

Note 2—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the condensed consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto as of and for the year ended December 30, 2023, included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 23, 2024.

In the opinion of management, all adjustments for the fair presentation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements have been made. The adjustments are of a normal recurring nature except as otherwise noted. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for other periods or the full fiscal year. The Company has evaluated events occurring subsequent to March 30, 2024 through the filing date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and concluded that there were no events that required recognition and disclosures other than those discussed elsewhere in the notes hereto.

Principles of Consolidation

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Netlist, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Fiscal Year

The Company’s fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period that ends on the Saturday nearest to December 31. The Company’s fiscal year 2024 will include 52 weeks and ends on December 28, 2024. Each quarter of fiscal year 2024 will be comprised of 13 weeks. Unless otherwise stated, references to particular years, quarters, months and periods refer to the Company’s fiscal years ended in January and the associated quarters, months and periods of those fiscal years.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions made by management include, but not limited to, the determination of inventory reserves, allowance for doubtful accounts, and the discount rate used for lease obligation. Actual results may differ materially from those estimates.

7

Table of Contents

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

In December 2023, the FASB issued Update 2023-09, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures.” This update applies to all entities that are subject to Topic 740. The amendments in this update improve income tax disclosures primarily related to the rate reconciliation and income taxes paid information as well as the effectiveness of certain other income tax disclosures. The new standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024. Early adoption is permitted. This standard should be applied on a prospective basis, but retrospective application is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this new standard.

Note 3—Supplemental Financial Information

Inventories

Inventories consisted of the following (in thousands):

March 30,

December 30,

    

2024

    

2023

Raw materials

$

1,438

$

4,133

Work in process

446

274

Finished goods

13,285

7,624

$

15,169

$

12,031

Loss Per Share

The following table shows the computation of basic and diluted loss per share of common stock (in thousands, except per share data):

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

2024

    

2023

Numerator: Net loss

$

(16,968)

$

(15,788)

Denominator: Weighted-average basic shares outstanding - basic and diluted

254,931

235,121

Net loss per share - basic and diluted

$

(0.07)

$

(0.07)

The table below shows potentially dilutive weighted average common share equivalents, consisting of shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants using the treasury stock method and the shares vesting of issuable upon the restricted stock units (“RSUs”). These potential weighted average common share equivalents have been excluded from the diluted net loss per share calculations above as their effect would be anti-dilutive (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

2024

    

2023

Weighted average common share equivalents

2,035

3,193

8

Table of Contents

Disaggregation of Net Sales

The following table shows disaggregated net sales by major source (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

    

2024

2023

Resales of third-party products

$

31,274

$

6,909

Sale of the Company's modular memory subsystems

4,533

2,112

Total net sales

$

35,807

$

9,021

Major Customers and Products

The Company’s net product sales have historically been concentrated in a small number of customers. The following table sets forth the percentage of net product sales made to customers that each comprise 10% or more of total product sales:

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

2024

2023

Customer A

27%

49%

Customer B

*

12%

Customer C

10%

*

Customer D

12%

*

*

Less than 10% of net sales during the period.

As of March 30, 2024, two customers represented approximately 54% and 19% of aggregated gross accounts receivables, respectively. As of December 30, 2023, two customers represented approximately 60% and 10%, respectively, of aggregate gross accounts receivables. The loss of a major customer or a reduction in sales to or difficulties collecting payments from these customers could significantly reduce the Company’s net sales and adversely affect its operating results. The Company mitigates risks associated with foreign and domestic receivables by purchasing comprehensive credit insurance.

The Company resells certain component products to end-customers that are not reached in the distribution models of the component manufacturers, including storage customers, appliance customers, system builders and cloud and datacenter customers. For the three months ended March 30, 2024 and April 1, 2023, resales of these products represented approximately 87% and 77% of net product sales, respectively.

Note 4—Credit Agreement and Standby Letters of Credit

2023 SVB Credit Agreement

On November 7, 2023, we entered into a loan and security agreement (the “2023 SVB Credit Agreement”) with Silicon Valley Bank, a division of First-Citizen Bank & Trust Company (“SVB”), which provides for a revolving line of credit up to $10.0 million. The borrowing base is limited to 85% of eligible accounts receivable, subject to certain adjustments. Borrowings accrue interest on advance at a per annum rate equal to the greater of 8.50% and the Prime Rate. The maturity date is November 7, 2025.

The 2023 SVB Credit Agreement requires letters of credit to be secured by cash, which is classified as restricted cash in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. As of March 30, 2024 and December 30, 2023, (i) outstanding letters of credit and restricted cash were $12.4 million and $12.4 million, respectively, (ii) outstanding borrowings were $4.4 million and $3.8 million, respectively, and (iii) availability under the revolving line of credit was $0 and $0, respectively.

9

Table of Contents

As of March 30, 2024, all obligations under the 2023 SVB Credit Agreement were secured by a first priority security interest in our tangible and intangible assets. The 2023 SVB Credit Agreement subjects us to certain affirmative and negative covenants, including financial covenants with respect to our liquidity and restrictions on the payment of dividends. As of March 30, 2024, we were in compliance with our covenants under the 2023 SVB Credit Agreement.

Standby Letters of Credit

As of March 30, 2024, the amount of outstanding letters of credit was approximately $12.2 million, consisting of an irrevocable letter of credit issued by SVB on our behalf to a third party expiring on December 31, 2024, and two irrevocable letters of credit issued by Citibank, N.A. on our behalf to third parties expiring on May 15, 2025 and June 6, 2025, respectively. As of March 30, 2024, no amount has been drawn from the letters of credit. A standby letter of credit is a guarantee of payment issued by a bank on our behalf that is used as payment of last resort should we fail to fulfill a contractual commitment with a third party.

Note 5—Debt

The Company’s debt consisted of the following (in thousands):

March 30,

December 30,

    

2024

    

2023

Notes payable

$

377

$

Less: amounts due within one year

(377)

Long-term debt

$

$

Insurance Policy Finance Agreement

As of March 30, 2024 and December 30, 2023, we had $0.4 million and $0, respectively, in short-term notes payable for the financing of insurance policies. On January 23, 2024, we entered into a short-term note payable for $0.5 million bearing interest at 8.42% to finance insurance policies. Principal and interest payments on this note began on February 15, 2024 and are made evenly based on a straight line amortization over an 8-month period.

Note 6—Leases

The Company has operating and finance leases primarily associated with office and manufacturing facilities and certain equipment. The determination of which discount rate to use when measuring the lease obligation was deemed a significant judgment.

Lease cost and supplemental condensed consolidated cash flow information related to operating and finance leases were as follows (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

    

2024

    

2023

Lease cost:

Operating lease cost

$

191

$

195

Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:

Operating cash flows from operating leases

$

206

$

169

For the three months ended March 30, 2024 and April 1, 2023, finance lease costs and cash flows from finance leases were immaterial.

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Supplemental condensed consolidated balance sheet information related to leases was as follows (in thousands):

March 30,

December 30,

2024

2023

Operating Leases

Operating lease right-of-use assets

$

1,423

$

1,590

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

$

578

$

617

Operating lease liabilities

1,072

1,213

Total operating lease liabilities

$

1,650

$

1,830

Finance Leases

Property and equipment, at cost

$

488

$

488

Accumulated depreciation

(243)

(219)

Property and equipment, net

$

245

$

269

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

$

36

$

90

Other liabilities

6

7

Total finance lease liabilities

$

42

$

97

The following table includes supplemental information:

March 30,

December 30,

2024

2023

Weighted Average Remaining Lease Term (in years)

Operating leases

2.7

2.9

Finance leases

0.7

0.7

Weighted Average Discount Rate

Operating leases

5.6%

5.6%

Finance leases

4.6%

4.4%

Maturities of lease liabilities as of March 30, 2024, were as follows (in thousands):

Operating

Finance

Fiscal Year

Leases

Leases

2024 (remainder of the year)

$

496

$

36

2025

624

5

2026

639

2

2027

23

Total lease payments

1,782

43

Less: imputed interest

(132)

(1)

Total

$

1,650

$

42

Note 7Commitments and Contingencies

Contingent Legal Expenses

We may retain the services of law firms that specialize in patent licensing and enforcement and patent law in connection with our licensing and enforcement activities. These law firms may be retained on a contingent fee basis whereby such law firms are paid on a scaled percentage of any negotiated fee, settlements or judgments awarded based on how and when the fees, settlements or judgments are obtained.

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Litigation and Patent Reexaminations

The Company is, from time to time, a party to litigation that arises in the normal course of its business operations. We own numerous patents and continue to seek to grow and strengthen our patent portfolio, which covers various aspects of our innovations and includes various claim scopes. We plan to pursue avenues to monetize our intellectual property portfolio, in which we would generate revenue by selling or licensing our technology, and we intend to vigorously enforce our patent rights against alleged infringers of such rights. We dedicate substantial resources to protecting and enforcing our intellectual property rights, including with patent infringement proceedings we file against third parties and defense of our patents against challenges made by way of reexamination and review proceedings at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) and Patent Trial and Appeal Board (“PTAB” or the “Board”). We expect these activities to continue for the foreseeable future, with no guarantee that any ongoing or future patent protection or litigation activities will be successful, or that we will be able to monetize our intellectual property portfolio.

Any litigation, regardless of its outcome, is inherently uncertain, involves a significant dedication of resources, including time and capital, and diverts management’s attention from our other activities. As a result, any current or future claims, allegations, or challenges by or against third parties, whether eventually decided in our favor or settled, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, the outcome of pending or future litigation and/or related patent reviews and reexaminations, as well as any delay in their resolution, could affect our ability to continue to sell our products, protect against competition in the current and expected markets for our products or license or otherwise monetize our intellectual property rights in the future.

Google Litigations

On December 4, 2009, Netlist filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Google Inc. (“Google”) in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (the “NDCA”), seeking damages and injunctive relief based on Google’s alleged infringement of our U.S. Patent No. 7,619,912 (the “‘912 Patent”). The current judge assigned to the case, Hon. Chief Judge Seeborg, entered an order via stipulation on October 17, 2022 staying the NDCA Google case until the resolution of a pending case filed by Netlist, Inc. against Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Samsung Semiconductor Inc., and Samsung Electronics America Inc. (collectively, “Samsung”) in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas (“EDTX”) (Netlist, Inc. v. Samsung Elecs. Co., Ltd. et al., Case No. 2:22-cv-00293-JRG).

On July 26, 2022, Netlist filed patent infringement claims against Google Cloud EMEA Limited, Google Germany GmbH, Redtec Computing GmbH, and Google LLC (the “German Google Defendants”), seeking damages based on those defendants’ infringement of European Patents EP 2,454,735 (“EP735”) and EP 3,404,660 (“EP660”), which both generally relate to load reduced dual in line memory modules (“LRDIMM”) technologies. As of the reporting date, the German Google Defendants have submitted statements of defense. As of the reporting date, the German Federal patent Court has issued its order finding the EP735 null, and the proceedings before the Dusseldorf Court are currently stayed pending the outcome of the nullity reviews of the asserted EP patents.

On October 15, 2021, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. (“SECL”) and Samsung Semiconductor Inc. (“SSI”) initiated a declaratory judgement action against Netlist in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware (“DDE”) (Samsung Elecs. Co., Ltd., et. al. v. Netlist, Inc., Case No. 1:21-cv-01453-RGA). On September 12, 2022, Netlist amended its Counterclaims to include counterclaims against Google LLC and Alphabet, Inc (together, “Google Delaware Defendants”). On November 15, 2022, the Google Delaware Defendants responded to Netlist’s Counterclaims by filing a Motion to Dismiss or alternatively to sever and stay the counterclaims. As of the reporting date, the Court heard oral arguments for the Google Delaware Defendants’ Motion to Dismiss or alternatively, Sever and Stay and Dismiss Willfulness and Indirect Infringement Allegations. On October 10, 2023, the DDE Court entered an order granting-in-part and denying-in-part SECL and SSI’s prior motion to stay the matter in light of pending Inter Partes Reviews (“IPRs”) and a Ninth Circuit appeal, in effect staying claims with respect to Netlist’s U.S. Patent Nos. 9,858,218 (the “‘218 Patent”) and 10,474,595 (the “‘595 Patent”), while allowing claims under Netlist’s U.S. Patent No. 10,217,523 (the “‘523 Patent”) to proceed. On October 20, 2023, the Court held a claim construction hearing involving all parties. As part of the hearing, the Court also sought feedback from parties as to the issue of whether the matter should be stayed pending review of the Ninth Circuit’s recent unpublished decision on the underlying Central District of California action.

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On December 1, 2023, the Court entered an Oral Order staying the matter until the development of any action by any other court pertaining to Samsung’s and Netlist’s rights under the JDLA that may merit lifting the stay. As of the reporting date, the case remains stayed.

Micron Litigations

On April 28, 2021, Netlist filed a complaint for patent infringement against Micron Technology, Inc. (“Micron”) in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas (“WDTX”), Waco Division (Case No. 6:21-cv00431 & Case No. 6:21-cv-00430). These proceedings are based on the alleged infringement by Micron’s LRDIMM and Micron’s non-volatile dual in line memory modules (“NVDIMM”) enterprise memory modules under four U.S. patents – U.S. Patent Nos. 10,489,314 (the “‘314 Patent”), 9,824,035 (the “‘035 Patent”), 10,268,608 (the “‘608 Patent”), and 8,301,833 (the “‘833 Patent”). The consolidated case was assigned to Hon. Judge Lee Yeakel (new Case No. 1:22-cv-00134, and 1:22-cv-00136), and the parties have completed briefing on their claim construction arguments. On May 11, 2022, Judge Yeakel entered a stay of the case pending the resolution of Micron’s requested IPR proceedings against the four patents asserted by Netlist in these consolidated cases (the ‘833, ‘035, ‘608, and ‘314 Patents). On May 4, 2023, the consolidated cases were reassigned to Docket II in the WDTX Austin Division, given Hon. Judge Yeakel’s retirement. On February 21, 2024, the parties have filed a status report with Austin District Court Judge Robert Pitman. On April 19, 2024, Netlist filed a motion to transfer the matter to the Eastern District of Texas, Marshall Division. As of the reporting date, the matter remains assigned to Judicial Docket II of the WDTX, Austin Division Court pending briefing and a decision on Netlist’s motion.

As noted above, Micron filed requests to bring IPR proceedings against Netlist’s ‘314, ‘035, ‘608, and ‘833 Patents. The PTAB granted Micron’s request for the ‘035, ‘833, and ‘314 Patents, but denied its request for instituting an IPR trial for the ‘608 Patent. The PTAB further denied Micron’s request for rehearing on the ‘608 Patent’s institution denial. Oral arguments were presented for the ‘035 Patent IPR on April 19, 2023, with the PTAB finding claims 2 and 6 of the ‘035 Patent patentable. On August 28, 2023, the PTAB determined that all challenged claims of the ‘833 Patent were unpatentable. On October 30, 2023, the PTAB determined that all challenged claims of the ‘314 Patent were patentable. On December 29, 2023, Micron filed a Notice of Appeal for the ‘314 Patent IPR decisions, indicating its intent to challenge the PTAB’s validity findings at the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. As of the reporting date, Micron has not yet submitted its opening appeal brief.

On March 31, 2022, Netlist filed patent infringement claims against Micron in Dusseldorf, Germany (“Micron Dusseldorf Action”), seeking damages based on their infringement of EP735 and EP660. On June 24, 2022, Netlist requested injunctive relief. Micron initiated a nullity proceeding against the asserted EP patents in this action, making Netlist’s response to the same as November 19, 2022. Primary briefing in the Micron Dusseldorf Action has concluded, while the German Federal Patent Court entered a preliminary opinion on EP735 and EP660 in a related invalidity proceedings that have been consolidated as of the reporting date. As of the reporting date, the German Federal patent Court has issued its order finding the EP735 null, and the Micron Dusseldorf Action has been stayed pending the outcome of the nullity reviews of the asserted EP patents.

On June 10, 2022, Netlist filed a complaint for patent infringement against Micron in the EDTX, Marshall Division (Case No. 2:22-cv-00203-JRG-RSP). These proceedings are based on the alleged infringement by Micron for the sale of its LRDIMMs, its memory modules utilizing on-board power management (“PMIC”), and its high bandwidth memory (“HBM”) components, under six U.S. Netlist patents: U.S. Patent Nos. 8,787,060 (the “‘060 Patent”), 9,318,160 (the “‘160 Patent), 10,860,506 (the “‘506 Patent”), 10,949,339 (the “‘339 Patent”), 11,016,918 (the “‘918 Patent”), and 11,232,054 (the “‘054 Patent”). The claim construction hearing took place before Hon. Magistrate Judge Roy Payne on July 26, 2023, and on October 30, 3023 the Court entered an Order confirming the Claim Construction outcome. The Jury Trial was initially scheduled to begin on January 22, 2024, but as of the reporting date, the Court has stayed the matter.

On August 1, 2022, Netlist filed a complaint for patent infringement against Micron in the EDTX (Case No. 2:22-cv-00294) under the ‘912 Patent, for Micron’s alleged infringement by the sale of its LRDIMMs and RDIMMs. On August 15, 2022, Netlist filed its first amended complaint, further addressing Micron’s infringement of U.S. Patent Nos. 9,858,215 (the “‘215 Patent”) and 11,093,417 (the “‘417 Patent”). On October 21, 2022, Hon. Chief Judge Gilstrap

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ordered that this Micron action and a parallel action by Netlist against defendants Samsung on the same patents (Case No. 2:22-cv-00293-JRG) be consolidated and set for a joint scheduling conference on November 17, 2022, further instructing that the Samsung action be considered the “LEAD CASE” and that any further filings from either action be submitted in that case for all pretrial matters. The claim construction hearing was advanced and took place before Hon. Chief Judge Gilstrap on September 26, 2023. On November 21, 2023, the Court entered its Claim Construction Order. The Court held the final pretrial conference for the consolidated case on March 6, 2024. As of the reporting date, the case is scheduled for a jury trial starting on May 20, 2024.

On November 18, 2022, Micron filed IPR requests contesting the validity of the ‘912, ‘339, and ‘506 Patents, along with motions requesting joinder to the pending Samsung IPRs related to the same patents (see below). As of the reporting date, Micron’s ‘912, ‘339, and ‘506 Patent IPRs have been joined with the corresponding Samsung IPR proceedings for the same respective patents. Oral hearings for the joined Samsung ‘339 and ‘506 Patents IPRs were held on July 19, 2023 and July 20, 2023, respectively. On June 30, 2023, the PTAB resumed the trial on the Samsung ‘912 Patent IPR (which included Micron’s claims via joinder) following USPTO Director Katherine Vidal’s sua sponte Director Review and scheduled the ‘912 Patent IPR for an oral hearing on January 31, 2024. On October 17, 2023 and October 18, 2023, the PTAB issued final written decisions stating that all challenged claims of the ‘506 and ‘339 Patents were unpatentable, respectively. Netlist filed Requests for Rehearing of the ‘506 and ‘339 Patent IPRs final written decisions on November 16, 2023 and November 17, 2023, respectively. On December 20, 2023, the Board denied Netlist’s Request for Rehearing on the ‘506 Patent IPR result. Netlist filed a Notice of Appeal challenging the Board’s final written decision for the ‘506 Patent, thus instituting an appeal before the Federal Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (“CAFC”) of the ‘506 Patent IPR result (CAFC Case No. 24-1521), and as of the reporting date has not filed its Opening Appeal Brief. On February 9, 2024, the PTAB denied Netlist’s Request for Rehearing on the ‘339 Patent IPR result. Netlist filed its Notice of Appeal challenging the Board’s final written decision for the ‘339 Patent, thus instituting an appeal before the CAFC of the ‘339 Patent IPR result (CAFC Case No. 24-1707, the “‘339 Appeal”), and as of the reporting date has not filed its Opening Appeal Brief. On January 31, 2024, an oral hearing was conducted for the Samsung ‘912 Patent IPR proceeding joined by Micron. On April 17, 2024, the PTAB entered its final written decision for the ‘912 Patent IPR, finding the challenged claim 16 unpatentable. As of the reporting date, Netlist has not filed a notice of appeal challenging the Board’s final written decision for the ‘912 Patent IPR.

On January 6, 2023, Micron filed IPR requests contesting the validity of the ‘918 and ‘054 Patents, along with motions requesting joinder to the pending Samsung IPRs related to the same patents (see below). On June 23, 2023, the matters were joined with the corresponding Samsung IPRs on the same patents. On September 5, 2023, oral hearings for the ‘918 and ‘054 Patent IPRs were held. On December 5, 2023 and December 6, 2023, the PTAB entered final written decisions for the ‘918 and ‘054 Patent IPRs, respectively, finding in both instances that all challenged claims were unpatentable. On January 5, 2024 and January 6, 2024, Netlist filed requests for USPTO Director Review of the ‘918 and ‘054 Patents final written decisions, respectively. On March 18, 2024, the USPTO denied Netlist’s request for Director Review of the ‘918 and ‘054 Patent IPRs. As of the reporting date, Netlist has not filed a notice of appeal challenging the Board’s final written decision for the ‘918 or ‘054 Patent IPRs.

On May 8, 2023, Micron filed IPR requests contesting the validity of the ‘060 and ‘160 Patents, along with motions requesting joinder to the pending Samsung IPRs related to the same patents (see below). On October 26, 2023, the PTAB instituted the Micron ‘060 and ‘160 Patent IPRs and joined them with the earlier-filed ‘060 and ‘160 Patent IPRs. An oral hearing was held on January 11, 2024, and on April 1, 2024, the PTAB issued its final written decisions finding all challenged claims of the ‘060 and ‘160 Patents unpatentable. On May 1, 2024, Netlist requested a director review of the final written decisions.

On July 28, 2023, Micron filed two IPR petitions contesting the validity of the ‘215 and ‘417 Patents. On January 3, 2024, the PTAB granted institution and joinder to Samsung’s earlier-filed IPRs for the same two patents. The parties completed briefing on the Samsung ‘417 and ‘215 Patent IPRs that Micron had joined and held oral arguments on May 3, 2024. As of the reporting date, the PTAB has not yet issued its final written decision.

On December 11, 2023, Micron filed a complaint in the District Court for the Fourth Judicial District of the State of Idaho alleging Netlist violated Idaho Code § 48-1703 through its assertion of the ‘833 Patent in the WDTX (the “First Idaho Complaint”). Netlist removed the matter from State Court to the Federal District Court for the District of

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Idaho on January 2, 2024. On January 18, 2024, the matter was assigned to Judge David C. Nye for all proceedings, and Micron filed a Motion to remand the case back to Idaho state court. On February 7, 2024, Netlist moved to dismiss Micron’s First Idaho Complaint or alternatively transfer the case, and on February 8, 2024 responded to Micron’s Motion to Remand. On February 22, 2024, Micron filed its reply in support of its remand motion. On February 28, 2024 Micron filed its response to Netlist’s Motion to Dismiss or Transfer the case. On March 13, 2024, Netlist filed its reply in support of its Motion to Dismiss or Transfer the case. As of the reporting date, the Court has not yet ruled on these motions.

On December 22, 2023, Netlist filed a Declaratory Judgment action in the Federal District Court for the EDTX, Marshall Division, seeking confirmation from the Court that Netlist has not made a bad-faith assertion of patent infringement against Micron. On January 19, 2024, Micron filed a Motion to Dismiss. On February 7, 2024, Netlist amended its complaint, and on March 6, 2024, Micron filed its Answer to Netlist’s First Amended Complaint. On April 23, 2024, the Court held a scheduling conference, and on April 24, 2024 the Court entered its docket control order setting the matter for a jury trial on July 7, 2025.

On January 10, 2024, Micron filed an IPR petition, again contesting the validityof the ‘608 Patent, along with a motion to join Samsung’s instituted parallel IPR proceeding. As of the reporting date, the PTAB has not yet entered an order instituting a trial under Micron’s petition or joining Micron’s second ‘608 Patent challenge to Samsung’s co-pending challenge.

On January 16, 2024, Micron filed a second complaint in the District Court for the Fourth Judicial District of the State of Idaho alleging Netlist violated Idaho Code § 48-1703, this time for Netlist’s assertion of the ‘918 and ‘054 Patents in the EDTX. On February 9, 2024, Netlist removed the matter from State Court to the Federal District Court for the District of Idaho. The removed case has been assigned to Judge David C. Nye. On February 16, 2024, Netlist filed a Motion to Dismiss or in the Alternative Transfer the case. Micron filed its opposition to Netlist’s Motion to Transfer on March 8, 2024. On March 11, 2024, Micron filed a Motion to Remand the case. As of the reporting date, the Court has not yet ruled on these motions.

Samsung Litigations

On May 28, 2020, Netlist filed a complaint against Samsung in the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California for Samsung’s breach of the parties’ Joint Development and License Agreement (“JDLA”). On July 22, 2020, Netlist amended its complaint to seek a declaratory judgment that it properly terminated the JDLA in light of Samsung’s material breaches. On October 14, 2021, the Court entered summary judgment in Netlist’s favor and confirmed Netlist properly terminated the JDLA as of July 15, 2020. On February 15, 2022, the Court entered a final judgment in favor of Netlist on each of its three claims and confirmed that the licenses granted by Netlist under the JDLA were terminated. On February 25, 2022, Samsung filed a Notice of Appeal, and the Federal Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals issued a Time Schedule Order on February 28, 2022. On August 4, 2022, Netlist filed a cross-appeal seeking the Appeal Court’s reconsideration of the District Court’s finding that the fees Netlist paid to PwC were consequential damages, rather than recoverable general damages. On June 8, 2023, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals heard oral arguments from both parties on the matter following completion of all briefing. On October 17, 2023, the Ninth Circuit panel issued an unpublished memorandum affirming-in-part and reversing-and-remanding-in-part the District Court’s rulings. On November 8, 2023, the Ninth Circuit issued a mandate to the California Central District Court, whereupon the Court issued an Order reopening the case as of November 13, 2023. After collecting a joint statement of the case from the parties, the Court ordered the parties to rebrief the remaining issues in the summary judgment proceedings based only on the existing record. On February 5, 2024, the Court held a hearing on the remaining summary judgment issues, and on February 6, 2024, the Court issued an Order denying all of the parties’ various pending motions. In the same Order, the Court set the matter for a jury trial to begin on March 26, 2024, with a final pretrial conference set for March 18, 2024. The Court used the conference set for March 18, 2024 to discuss the status of the case, and then on March 22, 2024, reset the final pretrial conference to April 15, 2024 and trial start date to May 14, 2024. On March 28, 2024, the Court reset the final pretrial conference to May 6, 2024 at 2:00 pm, and kept the trial start date as May 14, 2024. As of the reporting date, the Court has maintained the May 14, 2024 trial start date.

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On October 15, 2021, Samsung initiated a declaratory judgement action against Netlist in the DDE (Samsung Elecs. Co., Ltd., et. al. v. Netlist, Inc., Case No. 1:21-cv-01453-RGA), where it requested in relevant part that the DDE declare that Samsung does not infringe the ‘218, ‘523, ‘595, ‘506, ‘339, ‘912 and ‘918 Patents, while later seeking leave to add the ‘054 Patent (issued January 25, 2022) to its action. On August 1, 2022, Hon. Judge Andrews dismissed all of Samsung’s counts related to Netlist’s ‘912, ‘506, ‘339, and ‘918 Patents, and denied Samsung’s request to bring its ‘054 Patent claims in Delaware. On September 12, 2022, Netlist amended its Counterclaims to include counterclaims tying Google to the action. On November 15, 2022, Google responded to Netlist’s Counterclaims by filing a Motion to Dismiss or alternatively to Sever and Stay the counterclaims. On May 22, 2023, the Court heard oral arguments on Google’s Motion to Dismiss or alternatively, Sever and Stay and Dismiss Willfulness and Indirect Infringement Allegations. On October 10, 2023, the Court entered an order granting-in-part and denying-in-part Samsung’s prior motion to stay the matter in light of pending IPRs and a Ninth Circuit appeal, staying claims with respect to the ‘218 and ‘595 Patents, while allowing claims under the ‘523 Patent to proceed. On December 1, 2023, the Court entered an Oral Order staying the matter entirely until the development of any action by any other court pertaining to Samsung’s and Netlist’s rights under the JDLA that may merit lifting the stay. As of the reporting date, the case remains stayed.

On November 19, 2021, Samsung filed IPR requests contesting the validity of the ‘218, ‘595, and ‘523 Patents. Netlist filed its initial responses to Samsung’s IPR petitions on February 18, 2022, contesting the institution of any IPR on the grounds propounded. On May 3, 2023, the PTAB issued a final written decision finding all of the claims of the ‘523 Patent valid and patentable, while on May 8, 2023 and May 9, 2023, it found all of the claims of the ‘218 and ‘595 Patents, respectively, unpatentable. On July 10, 2023, Samsung filed a Notice of Appeal challenging the Board’s decision upholding the patentability of the ‘523 Patent, thus instituting an appeal before the CAFC of the ‘523 Patent IPR result (CAFC Case No. 23-2133). As of the reporting date, the parties have completed briefing on the appeal, and the Federal Circuit has not yet set a date for oral arguments.

On December 20, 2021, Netlist filed a complaint for patent infringement against Samsung in the EDTX (Case No. 2:21-cv-00463-JRG) under the ‘506, ‘339, and ‘918 Patents. On May 3, 2022, Netlist entered a First Amended Complaint pursuant to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (“FRCP”) Rule 15, adding claims for infringement under three additional patents: the ‘060, ‘160, and ‘054 Patents. The ‘506, ‘339, ‘918, ‘060, ‘160, and ‘054 Patents are hereafter collectively referred to as the “EDTX1 Patents.” Netlist brought claims under the ‘339, ‘918, ‘054, ‘060, and ‘160 Patents in its Jury Trial, which concluded on April 21, 2023, with the entry of the jury’s verdict into the public record. The jury unanimously found that Samsung willfully infringed Netlist’s ‘339, ‘918, ‘054, ‘060, and ‘160 Patents through the sale of their DDR4 LRDIMMs, DDR5 DIMMs, and HBMs, and that none of the patent claims asserted at trial were invalid. The jury awarded Netlist, Inc. a total of approximately $303 million for Samsung’s infringement. On May 30, 2023, Hon. Chief Judge Gilstrap conducted a bench trial to assess the merits of Samsung’s affirmative defenses excusing its infringement of only the ‘339, ‘918, and ‘054 Patents. On August 11, 2023, Chief Judge Gilstrap issued a memorandum and Order denying Samsung’s requested relief and finding that the ‘918 and ‘054 patents were not unenforceable due to equitable estoppel, prosecution laches, or unclean hands, and that the ‘339 patent was not unenforceable due to unclean hands. The same day, the Court entered a Final Judgment against the Samsung Defendants for $303 million for Samsung’s willful infringement through the date of trial, but declined awarding enhanced damages. As of the reporting date, the parties have filed post-judgment motions, including a motion by Samsung to vacate the final judgment in light of the Ninth Circuit’s recent decision. The parties have briefed all of the post-judgment motions, and as of the reporting date the Court has not yet entered its final order. Additionally, as of the reporting date, all of the EDTX1 Patents are subject to IPR final written decisions. The outcome of each of the IPR proceedings related to each of the EDTX1 Patents may affect the underlying collectability of the jury award in this matter.

On February 17, 2022, Samsung filed an IPR request contesting the validity of only claim 16 within the ‘912 Patent. Samsung then filed two additional IPR requests contesting the validity of the ‘506 and ‘339 Patents. Netlist filed its Patent Owner’s Preliminary Response for the ‘912 and ‘339 Patent IPRs on July 21, 2022, and for the ‘506 Patent IPR on July 28, 2022. On January 19, 2023, the PTAB instituted IPR trials on both the ‘912 and ‘339 Patents. The following day, the PTAB instituted an IPR trial on the ‘506 Patent. On October 19, 2022, the PTAB instituted IPR trials on the ‘912 and ‘339 Patents, while two days later it instituted an IPR trial on the ’506 Patent. On January 5, 2023, USPTO Director Katherine K. Vidal entered an Order in the ‘912 Patent proceeding mandating a sua sponte Director review of the Board’s decision granting institution of the ‘912 Patent and staying the underlying proceedings in lieu of a supplemental briefing schedule set by the Director herself. On February 3, 2023, Director Vidal entered a decision

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requiring the assigned Board to reevaluate Netlist’s request for discovery on the admitted relationship between Samsung and Google and reassess whether Google is a “Real Party in Interest.” On June 30, 2023, the Board resumed the trial on the Samsung ‘912 Patent IPR, which now also includes Micron’s claims via joinder (see above), and scheduled the ‘912 Patent IPR for further substantive briefing and an oral hearing on January 31, 2024. On October 17, 2023 and October 18, 2023, the PTAB issued final written decisions stating that all challenged claims of the ‘506 and ‘339, respectively, Patents were unpatentable. Netlist filed Requests for Rehearing of the ‘506 and ‘339 Patent IPR final written decisions on November 16, 2023 and November 17, 2023, respectively. On December 20, 2023, the Board denied Netlist’s Request for Rehearing on the ‘506 Patent IPR result. Netlist filed a Notice of Appeal challenging the Board’s final written decision for the ‘506 Patent, thus instituting an appeal before the CAFC of the ‘506 Patent IPR result (CAFC Case No. 24-1521), and as of the reporting date has not filed its Opening Appeal Brief. On February 9, 2024, the PTAB denied Netlist’s Request for Rehearing on the ‘339 Patent IPR result. Netlist filed its Notice of Appeal challenging the Board’s final written decision for the ‘339 Patent, thus instituting an appeal before the CAFC of the ‘339 Patent IPR result (CAFC Case No. 24-1707), and as of the reporting date has not filed its Opening Appeal Brief. On January 31, 2024, an oral hearing was conducted for the Samsung ‘912 Patent IPR proceeding joined by Micron. On April 17, 2024, the PTAB entered its final written decision for the ‘912 Patent IPR, finding the challenged claim 16 unpatentable. As of the reporting date, Netlist has not filed a notice of appeal challenging the Board’s final written decision for the ‘912 Patent IPR.

On May 17, 2022, Samsung filed two IPR petitions contesting the validity of Netlist’s ‘918 and ‘054 Patents. On December 6, 2022, the Board instituted an IPR trial for the ‘054 Patent, and then instituted an IPR trial for the ‘918 Patent the next day. Micron has joined these Samsung IPRs on the ‘918 and ‘054 Patents, and oral arguments were heard on September 7, 2023. On December 5, 2023 and December 6, 2023, the PTAB entered final written decisions for the ‘918 and ‘054 Patent IPRs, respectively, finding in both instances that all challenged claims were unpatentable. On January 5, 2024 and January 6, 2024, Netlist filed requests for USPTO Director Review of the ‘918 and ‘054 Patents, respectively, final written decisions. On March 18, 2024, the USPTO denied Netlist’s request for Director Review of the ‘918 and ‘054 Patent IPRs. As of the reporting date, Netlist has not filed a notice of appeal challenging the Board’s final written decision for the ‘918 or ‘054 Patent IPRs.

On June 3, 2022, Netlist filed patent infringement lawsuits against Samsung in Dusseldorf, Germany, seeking damages for Samsung’s infringement of Netlist’s patents EP735 and EP660 (“Samsung Dusseldorf Action”). An Oral Hearing was held in the Dusseldorf Court on September 5, 2023 to determine the question of infringement specifically. The Court confirmed at the hearing that an Order would issue either staying the matter until a decision was reached on validity by the German Federal Patent Court, or a dismissal of the case if there was no infringement. On September 25, 2023, the Dusseldorf Court entered a stay of the matter until the German Federal Patent Court renders a decision in the nullity actions currently pending for EP735 and EP660. The German Federal Patent Court has issued its order finding the EP735 null, and the Samsung Dusseldorf Action has been stayed pending the outcome of the nullity reviews of the asserted EP patents.

On August 1, 2022, Netlist filed a complaint for patent infringement against Samsung in the EDTX (Case No. 2:22-cv-00293) under the ‘912 Patent, which relates generally to technologies to implement rank multiplication. On August 15, 2022, Netlist filed its first amended complaint here, further addressing Samsung’s infringement of the ‘215 and ‘417 Patents. On October 21, 2022, Hon. Chief Judge Gilstrap ordered that this action and a parallel action by Netlist against Micron on the same patents (22-cv-00294-JRG) be consolidated and set for a joint scheduling conference on November 17, 2022, further instructing that this Samsung action be considered the “LEAD CASE” and that any further filings from either action be submitted in therefore all pretrial matters. The claim construction hearing was advanced and took place before Hon. Chief Judge Gilstrap on September 26, 2023. On November 21, 2023, the Court entered its Claim Construction Order. The final pretrial conference was held on March 6, 2024, and as of the reporting date, the Court has not set the jury trial start date.

On August 26, 2022, Samsung filed two IPR petitions contesting the validity of Netlist’s ‘060 and ‘160 Patents. On January 19, 2023, Netlist filed its Patent Owner Preliminary Responses in those proceedings. An oral hearing was held on January 11, 2024, and on April 1, 2024, the PTAB issued its final written decisions finding all challenged claims of the ‘060 and ‘160 Patents unpatentable. On May 1, 2024, Netlist requested a director review of the final written decisions.

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On January 10, 2023, Samsung filed two IPR petitions contesting the validity of the ‘215 and ‘417 Patents. The Board accorded these IPRs a filing date of January 10, 2023, and Netlist filed its Patent Owner Preliminary Responses by the May 9, 2023 deadline. On August 1, 2023, the Board entered an Order instituting a trial for both of Samsung’s IPR petitions. The Board simultaneously set a schedule for briefing deadlines, and the date for oral arguments on May 3, 2024. On January 3, 3024, the PTAB joined the later-filed and substantially-identical Micron IPRs for the ‘215 and ‘417 Patents to Samsung’s IPRs. The parties completed briefing on the ‘417 and ‘215 Patent IPRs and held oral arguments on May 3, 2024. As of the reporting date, the PTAB has not yet issued its final written decisions.

On April 27, 2023, Samsung filed an IPR petition contesting the validity of the ‘608 Patent. The Board accorded Samsung’s IPR petition a filing date on June 14, 2023. On December 12, 2023, the PTAB instituted an IPR trial for the ‘608 Patent, despite having previously denied institution from Micron’s earlier-filed IPR petition of the same Patent. On December 26, 2023, Netlist filed a request for review of the institution decision by the Director of the USPTO. As of the reporting date, the PTAB and USPTO Director have denied Netlist’s requests. Netlist filed its Patent Owner’s Response on March 29, 2024. As of the reporting date, Samsung has not yet filed its reply.

On October 9, 2023, Samsung initiated a second declaratory judgement action against Netlist in the DDE (Samsung Elecs. Co., Ltd., et. al. v. Netlist, Inc., Case No. 1:23-cv-01122-RGA), where it requested in relevant part that the DDE declare that Samsung does not infringe Netlist’s U.S. Patent No. 11,386,024 (the “‘024 Patent”) and that Netlist allegedly breached its contractual obligations to the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council and thus harmed Samsung as a third-party beneficiary. Netlist filed a motion to dismiss the action on November 6, 2023. As of the reporting date, the parties have completed briefing on Netlist’s motion and the Court has yet to enter an order.

Other Contingent Obligations

In the ordinary course of our business, we have made certain indemnities, commitments and guarantees pursuant to which we may be required to make payments in relation to certain transactions. These may include, among others: (i) intellectual property indemnities to our customers and licensees in connection with the use, sale and/or license of our products; (ii) indemnities to vendors and service providers pertaining to claims based on our negligence or willful misconduct; (iii) indemnities involving the accuracy of representations and warranties in certain contracts; (iv) indemnities to our directors and officers to the maximum extent permitted under the laws of the State of Delaware; (v) indemnities pertaining to all obligations, demands, claims, and liabilities claimed or asserted by any other party in connection with transactions contemplated by applicable investment or loan documents, as applicable; and (vi) indemnities or other claims related to certain real estate leases, under which we may be required to indemnify property owners for environmental and other liabilities or may face other claims arising from our use of the applicable premises. The duration of these indemnities, commitments and guarantees varies and, in certain cases, may be indefinite. The majority of these indemnities, commitments and guarantees do not provide for any limitation of the maximum potential for future payments we could be obligated to make. Historically, we have not been obligated to make significant payments as a result of these obligations, and no liabilities have been recorded for these indemnities, commitments and guarantees in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.

Note 8—Stockholders’ Equity

Serial Preferred Stock

The Company’s authorized capital stock includes 10,000,000 shares of serial preferred stock, with a par value of $0.001 per share. No shares of preferred stock were outstanding as of March 30, 2024 or December 30, 2023.

On April 17, 2017, the Company entered into a rights agreement (as amended from time to time, the “Rights Agreement”) with Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as rights agent. In connection with the adoption of the Rights Agreement and pursuant to its terms, the Company’s board of directors authorized and declared a dividend of one right (each, a “Right”) for each outstanding share of the Company’s common stock to stockholders of record at the close of business on May 18, 2017 (the “Record Date”), and authorized the issuance of one Right for each share of the Company’s common stock issued by the Company (except as otherwise provided in the Rights Agreement) between the Record Date and the Distribution Date (as defined below). On April 17, 2024, the Company appointed Equiniti Trust

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Company, LLC (“Equiniti”) as rights agent under the Rights Agreement pursuant to that certain Amendment No. 4 to Rights Agreement, dated as of April 17, 2024, by and between the Company and Equiniti (the “Fourth Amendment”).

Each Right entitles the registered holder, subject to the terms of the Rights Agreement, to purchase from the Company, when exercisable and subject to adjustment, one unit consisting of one one-thousandth of a share (a “Unit”) of Series A Preferred Stock of the Company (the “Preferred Stock”), at a purchase price of $6.56 per Unit, subject to adjustment. Subject to the provisions of the Rights Agreement, including certain exceptions specified therein, a distribution date for the Rights (the “Distribution Date”) will occur upon the earlier of (i) 10 business days following a public announcement that a person or group of affiliated or associated persons (an “Acquiring Person”) has acquired or otherwise obtained beneficial ownership of 15% or more of the then-outstanding shares of the Company’s common stock, and (ii) 10 business days (or such later date as may be determined by the Company’s board of directors) following the commencement of a tender offer or exchange offer that would result in a person or group becoming an Acquiring Person. The Rights are not exercisable until the Distribution Date and, unless earlier redeemed or exchanged by the Company pursuant to the terms of the Rights Agreement (as amended on April 16, 2018, April 16, 2019, August 14, 2020, and April 17, 2024) will expire on the close of business on April 17, 2027.

In connection with the adoption of the Rights Agreement, the Company’s board of directors approved a Certificate of Designation of the Series A Preferred Stock (the “Certificate of Designation”) designating 1,000,000 shares of its serial preferred stock as Series A Preferred Stock and setting forth the rights, preferences and limitations of the Preferred Stock. The Company filed the Certificate of Designation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on April 17, 2017.

Common Stock

September 2021 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On September 28, 2021, the Company entered into a purchase agreement (the “September 2021 Purchase Agreement”) with Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC (“Lincoln Park”), pursuant to which the Company has the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $75 million in shares of its common stock subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. As consideration for entering into the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, the Company issued to Lincoln Park 218,750 shares of its common stock as initial commitment shares in a noncash transaction on September 28, 2021 and will issue up to 143,750 additional shares of its common stock as additional commitment shares on a pro rata basis in connection with any additional purchases. The Company will not receive any cash proceeds from the issuance of these additional commitment shares.

The Company controls the timing and amount of any sales of its common stock to Lincoln Park. There is no upper limit on the price per share that Lincoln Park must pay for the Company’s common stock under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, but in no event will shares be sold to Lincoln Park on a day the closing price is less than the floor price specified in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. In all instances, the Company may not sell shares of its common stock to Lincoln Park under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement if that would result in Lincoln Park beneficially owning more than 9.99% of its common stock.

The September 2021 Purchase Agreement does not limit the Company’s ability to raise capital from other sources at the Company’s sole discretion, except that, subject to certain exceptions, the Company may not enter into any Variable Rate Transaction (as defined in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, including the issuance of any floating conversion rate or variable priced equity-like securities) during the 36 months after the date of the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. The Company has the right to terminate the September 2021 Purchase Agreement at any time, at no cost to the Company.

During 2023, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 7,865,000 shares of our common stock for a net purchase price of $23.4 million under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. In connection with the purchases, we issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 44,939 shares of our common stock as additional commitment shares in noncash transactions. During the three months ended March 30, 2024, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 1,240,000 shares of our common stock for a net purchase price of $2.1 million under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. In

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connection with the purchases, we issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 4,085 shares of our common stock as additional commitment shares in noncash transactions.

Note 9—Stock-Based Awards

As of March 30, 2024, the Company had 1,772,423 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under its Amended and Restated 2006 Incentive Plan (“Amended 2006 Plan”). Stock options granted under the Amended 2006 Plan generally vest at a rate of at least 25% per year over four years and expire 10 years from the grant date. RSUs granted for employees and consultants generally vest in equal installments annually and fully vest over a four-year term from the grant date.

Stock Options

The following table summarizes the activity related to stock options during the three months ended March 30, 2024:

Weighted-

Number of

Average

Shares

Exercise

(in thousands)

    

Price

Outstanding as of December 30, 2023

4,039

$

0.90

Granted

Exercised

(78)

0.80

Expired or forfeited

(345)

1.99

Outstanding as of March 30, 2024

3,616

$

0.80

Restricted Stock Units

The following table summarizes the activity related to RSUs during the three months ended March 30, 2024:

Weighted-

Average

Number of

Grant-Date

Shares

Fair Value

(in thousands)

per Share

Balance nonvested as of December 30, 2023

3,603

$

3.49

Granted

Vested

(678)

3.39

Forfeited

(158)

1.44

Balance nonvested as of March 30, 2024

2,767

$

3.63

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Stock-Based Compensation

The following table summarizes the stock-based compensation expense by line item in the condensed consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

2024

2023

Cost of sales

$

21

$

18

Research and development

362

274

Selling, general and administrative

991

785

Total

$

1,374

$

1,077

As of March 30, 2024, the Company had approximately $8.3 million, net of estimated forfeitures, of unearned stock-based compensation, which it expects to recognize over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.3 years.

Note 10—Warrants

Warrant activity for the three months ended March 30, 2024 is as follows:

Weighted

Number of

Average

Shares

Exercise

    

(in thousands)

    

Price

Outstanding as of December 30, 2023

11,111

$

3.20

Granted

Exercised

Expired

Outstanding as of March 30, 2024

11,111

$

3.20

Note 11—Subsequent Events

On April 17, 2024, the Company entered into the Fourth Amendment. The Fourth Amendment appointed Equiniti as rights agent and amended the definition of “Expiration Date” in the Rights Agreement to extend the term for an additional three year period which extended the final expiration of the Rights issued pursuant to the Rights Agreement from April 17, 2024 to April 17, 2027. As a result and pursuant to the Fourth Amendment, the Rights will expire and become unexercisable on or before the close of business on April 17, 2027, in accordance with the terms of the Rights Agreement.

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Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) and other parts of this report include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are statements other than historical facts and often address future events or our future performance. Words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “may,” “will,” “might,” “plan,” “predict,” “believe,” “should,” “could” and similar words or expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

Forward-looking statements contained in this MD&A include statements about, among other things: 

our beliefs regarding the market and demand for our products or the component products we resell;
our ability to collect any damages awarded to us under Final Judgment against Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Samsung Semiconductor Inc., and Samsung Electronics America Inc. (collectively, “Samsung”);
our ability to develop and launch new products that are attractive to the market and stimulate customer demand for these products;
our plans relating to our intellectual property, including our goals of monetizing, licensing, expanding and defending our patent portfolio;
our expectations and strategies regarding outstanding legal proceedings and patent reexaminations relating to our intellectual property portfolio;
our expectations with respect to any strategic partnerships or other similar relationships we may pursue;
the competitive landscape of our industry;
general market, economic and political conditions;
our business strategies and objectives;
our expectations regarding our future operations and financial position, including revenues, costs and prospects, and our liquidity and capital resources, including cash flows, sufficiency of cash resources, efforts to reduce expenses and the potential for future financings;
our ability to remediate any material weakness, maintain effective internal control over financial reporting; and
the impact of the above factors and other future events on the market price and trading volume of our common stock.

All forward-looking statements reflect management’s present assumptions, expectations and beliefs regarding future events and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by any forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include those described under “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A of this report. In light of these risks and uncertainties, our forward-looking statements should not be relied on as predictions of future events. All forward-looking statements reflect our assumptions, expectations and beliefs only as of the date they are made, and except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason.

The following MD&A should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in Part I, Item 1 of this report, as well as our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on February 23, 2024 (the “Annual Report”). All information presented herein is based on our fiscal calendar, and references to particular years, quarters, months or periods refer to our fiscal years ended in January or December and the associated quarters, months and periods of those fiscal years. Each of the terms the “Company,” “Netlist,” “we,” “us,” or “our” as used herein refers collectively to Netlist, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise stated.

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Overview

Netlist provides high-performance memory solutions to enterprise customers in diverse industries. Our products, in various capacities and form factors, including our line of custom and specialty memory products, bring leading performance to customers in a variety of industries globally. Netlist also licenses its intellectual property.

During the first quarter of 2024, we recorded net sales of $35.8 million, gross profit of $0.7 million and net loss of $17.0 million. We have historically financed our operations primarily with proceeds from issuances of equity and debt securities and cash receipts from revenues. We have also funded our operations with a revolving line of credit and term loans under a bank credit facility with Silicon Valley Bank, a division of First-Citizen Bank & Trust Company (“SVB”). See “Liquidity and Capital Resources” below for more information.

Recent Developments

Fourth Amendment to Rights Agreement

On April 17, 2024, the Company entered into a fourth amendment (the “Fourth Amendment”) to the Company’s rights agreement dated as of April 17, 2017 (as amended from time to time, the “Rights Agreement”). The Fourth Amendment appointed Equiniti Trust Company, LLC as rights agent and amended the definition of “Expiration Date” in the Rights Agreement to extend the term for an additional three year period which extended the final expiration of the Rights issued pursuant to the Rights Agreement from April 17, 2024 to April 17, 2027. As a result and pursuant to the Fourth Amendment, the Rights will expire and become unexercisable on or before the close of business on April 17, 2027, in accordance with the terms of the Rights Agreement.

Jury Verdict and Judgment Against Samsung

On August 11, 2023, a judgment was entered in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas, which upheld the jury trial verdict on April 21, 2023 that awarded Netlist approximately $303 million in damages against Samsung for their willful infringement of five Netlist patents: U.S. Patent Nos. 10,949,339, 11,016,918, 11,232,054, 8,787,060, and 9,318,160. The products found to infringe these patents were Samsung DDR4 LRDIMMs, DDR5 UDIMMs, DDR5 SODIMMs, and DDR5 RDIMMs, and HBM2, HBM2E, and HBM3 components. Post-judgment motions are pending before the Court. Following entry of an order regarding that post-judgment briefing, an appeal may be filed before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Should any party file an appeal, that could cause a lengthy delay in our ability to collect a damages award from Samsung, lead to a reduction of the damages award, or lead to a remand or reversal of the jury’s verdict. Additionally, as of the reporting date, all of the patents confirmed as being infringed on the jury verdict are either subject to Inter Partes Review (“IPR”) final written decisions, or an active IPR trial. The outcome of each of the IPR proceedings related to each of these patents may affect the underlying collectability of the jury award in this matter.

September 2021 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On September 28, 2021, we entered into a purchase agreement (the “September 2021 Purchase Agreement”) with Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC (“Lincoln Park”), pursuant to which we have the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $75 million in shares of our common stock over the 36-month term of the September 2021 Purchase Agreement subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement.

During the three months ended March 30, 2024, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 1,240,000 shares of our common stock for a net purchase price of $2.1 million under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. In connection with the purchases, we issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 4,085 shares of our common stock as additional commitment shares in noncash transactions.

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Economic Conditions, Challenges and Risks

Our performance, financial condition and prospects are affected by a number of factors and are exposed to a number of risks and uncertainties. We operate in a competitive and rapidly evolving industry in which new risks emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all of the risks we may face, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor or combination of factors could cause actual results to differ from our expectations. See the discussion of certain risks that we face under “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A of this report.

Results of Operations

Net Sales and Gross Profit

Net sales and gross profit for the three months ended March 30, 2024 and April 1, 2023 were as follows (dollars in thousands):

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

%

    

2024

    

2023

    

Change

Net sales

$

35,807

$

9,021

297%

Cost of sales

35,092

8,461

315%

Gross profit

$

715

$

560

28%

Gross margin percentage

2%

6%

Net Sales

Net sales include resales of certain components, modules, and other products, which include dual in-line memory modules (“DIMMs”) and solid-state drives (“SSDs”). Net sales also include sales of Netlist’s own products.

Net sales increased by approximately $26.8 million during the first quarter of 2024 compared to the same period of 2023, primarily as a result of a $24.2 million increase in the sale of registered DIMM (“RDIMM”) and discrete memory component products, a $1.5 million increase in sales of Netlist’s flash and SSD products, and a $1.1 million increase in sales of low-profile memory subsystem products.

Gross Profit and Gross Margin

Product gross profit increased during the first quarter of 2024 compared to the same period of 2023, primarily as a result of higher sales across all product groups. Product gross margin percentage decreased during the first quarter of 2024 compared to the same period of 2023, primarily as a result of product sales mix.

Operating Expenses

Operating expenses for the three months ended March 30, 2024 and April 1, 2023, were as follows (dollars in thousands):

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

%

    

2024

    

2023

    

Change

Research and development

$

2,441

$

2,301

6%

Percentage of net sales

7%

26%

Intellectual property legal fees

$

12,540

$

11,070

13%

Percentage of net sales

35%

123%

Selling, general and administrative

$

3,116

$

3,030

3%

Percentage of net sales

9%

34%

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Research and Development

Research and development expenses increased during the first quarter of 2024 compared to the same period of 2023 due primarily to an increase in employee headcount and related overhead.

Intellectual Property Legal Fees

Intellectual property legal fees consist of fees incurred for patent drafting and prosecution, opposition to third-party post-grant patent proceedings, and patent enforcement and licensing. Although we expect intellectual property legal fees to generally increase over time as we continue to expand, protect and enforce our patent portfolio, these increases may not be linear but may occur in lump sums depending on the due dates of filings and their associated fees, and the arrangements we may make with our legal advisors in connection with enforcement proceedings, which may include fee arrangements or contingent fee arrangements in which we would pay these legal advisors on a scaled percentage of any negotiated fees, settlements or judgments awarded to us based on if, how and when the fees, settlements or judgments are obtained. See Note 7 to the condensed consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this report for further discussion.

Intellectual property legal fees increased during the first quarter of 2024 compared to the same period of 2023 due primarily to higher legal expenses incurred to protect and enforce our patent portfolio.

Selling, General and Administrative

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased during the first quarter of 2024 compared to the same period of 2023 due primarily to an increase in employee headcount and overhead and outside services.

Other Income, Net

Other income, net for the three months ended March 30, 2024 and April 1, 2023 was as follows (dollars in thousands):

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

%

    

2024

    

2023

    

Change

Interest income, net

$

377

$

56

Other income (expense), net

38

(3)

Total other income, net

$

415

$

53

683%

Interest income, net increased during the first quarter of 2024 compared to the same period of 2023, primarily as a result of higher interest rate earned on higher cash balances. Other income, net included sublease income for our warehouse space located in Irvine, California during the first quarter of 2024.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our primary sources of cash are historically proceeds from issuances of equity and receipts from revenues. In addition, we have received proceeds from our entry into a Strategic Product Supply and License Agreement with SK hynix, Inc., a South Korean memory semiconductor supplier (“SK hynix”), on April 5, 2021 (the “Strategic Agreement”), which we use to support our operations. We have also funded our operations with a revolving line of credit under a bank credit facility with SVB.

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The following tables present selected financial information as of March 30, 2024 and December 30, 2023 and for the first three months of 2024 and 2023 (in thousands):

March 30,

December 30,

    

2024

    

2023

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

$

41,136

$

52,845

Debt due within one year

377

Working capital

9,043

22,289

Three Months Ended

March 30,

April 1,

    

2024

    

2023

Net cash used in operating activities

$

(14,218)

$

(12,714)

Net cash used in investing activities

(37)

-

Net cash provided by financing activities

2,546

5,673

During the three months ended March 30, 2024, net cash used in operating activities was primarily a result of net loss of $17.0 million, non-cash adjustments to net loss of $1.6 million, and net cash inflows from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $1.1 million driven predominantly by an increase in accounts payable due to higher legal fees to defend our patent portfolio and an increase in accrued expenses and other liabilities, partially offset by an increase in inventories due to higher purchases to support increased sales. Net cash provided by financing activities during the three months ended March 30, 2024 primarily consisted of $0.5 million in net borrowings under the 2023 SVB Credit Agreement (as defined below), $2.1 million in net proceeds from issuance of common stock under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, offset by $0.1 million in payments of notes payable to finance insurance policies.

During the three months ended April 1, 2023, net cash used in operating activities was primarily a result of net loss of $15.8 million, non-cash adjustments to net loss of $1.3 million, and net cash inflows from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $1.7 million driven predominantly by a decrease in accounts receivable and inventories, partially offset by a decrease in accounts payable due to lower inventory purchases. Net cash provided by financing activities during the three months ended April 1, 2023 primarily consisted of $10.5 million in net proceeds from issuance of common stock under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, $0.3 million in proceeds from exercise of stock options, offset by $4.9 million in net repayments under the 2023 SVB Credit Agreement and $0.1 million in payments of notes payable to finance insurance policies.

Capital Resources

2023 SVB Credit Agreement

On November 7, 2023, we entered into a loan and security agreement (the “2023 SVB Credit Agreement”) with SVB, which provides for a revolving line of credit up to $10.0 million. The borrowing base is limited to 85% of eligible accounts receivable, subject to certain adjustments. Borrowings accrue interest on advance at a per annum rate equal to the greater of 8.50% and the Wall Street Journal prime rate (“Prime Rate”). The maturity date is November 7, 2025.

As of March 30, 2024, the outstanding borrowings under the 2023 SVB Credit Agreement were $4.4 million with no availability under the revolving line of credit. During the three months ended March 30, 2024, we made net borrowings of $0.5 million under the 2023 SVB Credit Agreement.

2023 Offering

On August 14, 2023, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (the “2023 Purchase Agreement”) with certain investors, pursuant to which we agreed to issue and sell to the investors in a registered offering (“the 2023 Offering”) an aggregate of 11,111,112 shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 11,111,112 shares of our common stock at a per share purchase price of $2.70 per share. The 2023 Offering closed on

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August 17, 2023. The net proceeds to us from the 2023 Offering were $28.6 million, after deducting placement agent fees and offering costs paid by us.

September 2021 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On September 28, 2021, we entered into the September 2021 Purchase Agreement with Lincoln Park, pursuant to which we have the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $75.0 million in shares of our common stock over the 36-month term of the September 2021 Purchase Agreement subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. As of March 30, 2024, $34.1 million remains available under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement with Lincoln Park.

Sufficiency of Cash Balances and Potential Sources of Additional Capital

We believe our existing balance of cash and cash equivalents together with the cash received under the Strategic Agreement with SK hynix, proceeds from issuances of debt and equity securities, including our equity line with Lincoln Park, cash receipts from revenues, borrowing availability under the 2023 SVB Credit Agreement, the equity financing available under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, funds raised through future equity offerings and taking into account cash expected to be used in our operations, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next 12 months.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditure or capital resources that is material to investors.

Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates

The preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of net sales and expenses during the reporting period. By their nature, these estimates and assumptions are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty. We base our estimates and assumptions on our historical experience, knowledge of current conditions and our beliefs of what could occur in the future considering available information. We review our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Actual results may differ from our estimates, which may result in material adverse effects on our consolidated operating results and financial position.

Our critical accounting policies and estimates are discussed in Note 2 to the condensed consolidated financial statements in this report and in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of our Annual Report and in the MD&A in our Annual Report. There have been no significant changes to our critical accounting policies since our Annual Report.

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Item 3. 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

The majority of our sales and our expenses are denominated in U.S. dollars. Since we operate in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”), a percentage of our operational expenses are denominated in Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”) and exchange volatility could positively or negatively impact those operating costs. Additionally, we may hold certain assets and liabilities in local currency on our consolidated balance sheet. As the operational expenses in RMB is immaterial, we do not believe that foreign exchange volatility has a material impact on our current business or results of operations.

Item 4. 

Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports we file or submit under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.

Our management conducted an evaluation, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) promulgated under the Exchange Act) as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on this evaluation, due to the elimination of our audit committee in August 2020, our principal executive officer and our principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of March 30, 2024.

Notwithstanding the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, we have concluded that the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q fairly present, in all material respects, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in conformity with U.S. GAAP.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the quarter ended March 30, 2024 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Remediation Initiatives

In an effort to address the identified material weakness and enhance our internal controls related to our lack of an independent board and audit committee, we continue to maintain our financial reporting process we followed to prepare consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP for audit committee meetings on a quarterly and annual basis. We engage all departments groups to identify risks to the achievement of our goals as a basis for determining how the risks should be managed. Our Chief Executive Officer and sole director will oversee the process to ensure all required disclosures are made in our consolidated financial statements on a quarterly and annual basis.

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PART II. — OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. 

Legal Proceedings

The information under “Litigation and Patent Reexaminations” in Note 7 to the condensed consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this report is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

We are subject to a number of risks that if realized could affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Some of the more significant challenges and risks include the following:

We have historically incurred losses and may continue to incur losses;
We may not be able to collect the damages awarded to us in our litigation with Samsung, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results;
We are involved in multiple lawsuits and administrative actions in multiple jurisdictions to protect and assert our intellectual property rights against large, well-capitalized companies, which requires that we continue to expend substantial financial and management resources, and we may not be successful in these proceedings;
We are and expect to continue to be involved in other legal and administrative proceedings to enforce or protect our intellectual property rights and to defend against claims that we infringe the intellectual property rights of others;
The vast majority of our net product sales in recent periods have been generated from resales of products, including products sourced from SK hynix, and any decline in these product resales could significantly harm our performance;
We are subject to risks relating to our focus on developing our compute express link (“CXL”) products for our target customer markets;
Sales to a small number of customers have historically represented a significant portion of our net product sales, and the loss of, or a significant reduction in sales to, any one of these customers could materially harm our business;
We are subject to risks of disruption in the supply of component products;
Our customers require that our products undergo a lengthy and expensive qualification process without any assurance of sales;
If we are unable to timely and cost-effectively develop new or enhanced products that achieve customer and market acceptance or technologies we can monetize, our revenues and prospects could be materially harmed;
We face intense competition in our industry, and we may not be able to compete successfully in our target markets;
Semiconductor memory and storage markets are highly competitive which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition;
Our operating results may be adversely impacted by worldwide economic and political uncertainties and specific conditions in the markets we address and in which we or our strategic partners or competitors do business, including the cyclical nature of and volatility in the memory market and semiconductor industry;
Our lack of a significant backlog of unfilled orders and the difficulty inherent in estimating customer demand makes it difficult to forecast our short-term requirements, and any failure to optimally calibrate our production capacity and inventory levels to meet customer demand could adversely affect our revenues, gross margin and earnings;
Declines in our average sale prices, driven by volatile prices for components and other factors, may result in declines in our revenues and gross margin;
Our manufacturing operations involve significant risks;
We depend on third parties to design and manufacture components for our products and the component products we resell, which exposes us to risks;

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If our products or the component products we resell do not meet quality standards or are defective or used in defective systems, we may be subject to quality holds, warranty claims, recalls or liability claims;
Our indemnification obligations for the infringement by our products of the rights of others could require us to pay substantial damages;
We depend on certain key employees, and our business could be harmed if we lose the services of any of these employees or are unable to attract and retain other qualified personnel;
We rely on our internal and third-party sales representatives to market and sell our products and the component products we resell, and any failure by these representatives to perform as expected could reduce our sales;
Our operations could be disrupted by power outages, natural disasters, cyber-attacks or other factors;
Difficulties with our global information technology systems, including any unauthorized access or cyber-attacks, could harm our business;
If we do not effectively manage any future growth we may experience, our resources, systems and controls may be strained and our results of operations may suffer;
If we acquire businesses or technologies or pursue other strategic transactions or relationships in the future, these transactions could disrupt our business and harm our operating results and financial condition;
Increased prices and inflation could negatively impact our margin performance and our financial results;
Geopolitical risks associated with the ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and Israel and Palestine could result in increased market volatility and uncertainty, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations;
We are exposed to additional business, regulatory, political, operational, financial and economic risks related to our international sales and operations;
Our failure to comply with environmental and other applicable laws and regulations could subject us to significant fines and liabilities or cause us to incur significant costs;
Regulations related to “conflict minerals” may cause us to incur additional expenses and could limit the supply and increase the cost of certain metals used in manufacturing our products;
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate the material weakness, or if we identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect our business;
We are required to comply with certain provisions of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (“Section 404”), that place significant demands on our resources, and the transition to the higher reporting and control standards that applies to us as a “large accelerated filer” may cause management distraction and increased costs;
We may be unsuccessful in monetizing our intellectual property portfolio;
If our proprietary rights are not protected, our customers or our competitors might gain access to our proprietary designs, processes and technologies, which could adversely affect our operating results;
We may become involved in non-patent related litigation and administrative proceedings that may materially adversely affect us;
We may not have sufficient working capital to fund our planned operations, and, as a result, we may need to raise additional capital in the future, which may not be available when needed, on acceptable terms or at all;
The price and trading volume of our common stock has and may continue to fluctuate significantly in reaction to real or perceived developments in our business;
We expect to incur additional indebtedness to support the growth of our business and to facilitate effective working capital. Our level of indebtedness and the terms of such indebtedness could adversely affect our operations and liquidity;
Adverse developments affecting financial institutions, companies in the financial services industry or the financial services industry generally could adversely affect our operations and liquidity;
There is a limited market for our common shares, and the trading price of our common shares is subject to volatility;

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Future issuances of our common stock or rights to purchase our common stock, including pursuant to our equity incentive plans, could result in additional dilution to the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause the price of our common stock to decline;
Sales of our common stock, or the perception that such sales could occur, could cause the market price of our stock to drop significantly, regardless of the state of our business;
As the sole director, Chun K. Hong has significant control over all corporate decisions that may not be in the best interest of our other stockholders;
Anti-takeover provisions under our charter documents and Delaware law, as well as our rights agreement, could delay or prevent a change of control and could also limit the market price of our common stock; and
We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common stock, and any return to investors is expected to result, if at all, only from potential increases in the price of our common stock.

Risks Related to Our Business, Operations and Industry

We have historically incurred losses and may continue to incur losses.

Since the inception of our business in 2000, we have only experienced two fiscal years (2006 and 2021) with profitable results. In order to sustain profitability, or to achieve and sustain positive cash flows from operations, we must reduce operating expenses and/or increase our revenues and gross margin. Although we have in the past engaged in a series of cost reduction actions, such expense reductions alone will not make us profitable or allow us to sustain profitability if it is achieved, and eliminating or reducing strategic initiatives could limit our opportunities and prospects. Our ability to sustain profitability will depend on increased revenue growth from, among other things, increased demand for our product offerings and our ability to monetize our intellectual property. We may not be successful in any of these pursuits, and we may not be able to sustain profitability if achieved.

We may not be able to collect the damages awarded to us in our litigation with Samsung, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.

As previously reported, in our litigation with Samsung, we were awarded damages of approximately $303 million. As of the reporting date, all of the patents confirmed as being infringed on the jury verdict are either subject to IPR final written decisions or an active IPR trial. The outcome of each of the IPR proceedings related to each of these patents may affect the underlying collectability of the jury award in this matter. The outcome of the trial is subject to appeal, though we have no knowledge as to whether Samsung will or will not appeal the judgment. If Samsung appeals the award, it is possible that the outcome of the retrial in the breach of contract litigation with Samsung in the Central District of California could make it more difficult to prevail in the appeal. An appeal by Samsung would likely cause a lengthy delay in our ability to collect the award and could result in a reversal or reduction of the award. With or without an appeal, we would need to successfully collect damages awarded to us. In addition, if the judgment is appealed and we are unable to sustain our operations through an appeal process, we may be required to raise additional capital through proceeds from other litigated matters or debt or equity financing. We cannot be certain that we will prevail or settle in any other ongoing litigation, or that any additional financing we may need will be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. If we do not receive funds from other litigation matters or secure financing in the future, we may be forced to liquidate our assets or discontinue our operations altogether.

We are involved in multiple lawsuits and administrative actions in multiple jurisdictions to protect and assert our intellectual property rights against large, well-capitalized companies, which requires that we continue to expend substantial financial and management resources, and we may not be successful in these proceedings.

We are currently involved in a variety of proceedings in multiple jurisdictions against large, well-capitalized companies, including Samsung, Google Inc. (“Google”), and Micron Technology, Inc. (“Micron”), which have already continued for many years and required substantial investments of financial and management resources, and we anticipate that these and other similar proceedings will continue to require similar investments over an extended period of time. Each of the proceedings is subject to substantial uncertainty of outcome because the litigation and appeal process in unpredictable and highly dependent upon specific factual matters and legal interpretations. We believe that it is critical to our future success to continue to pursue these actions, and we intend to do so. Each action will result in court rulings

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and decisions about significant issues, such as claim construction, patent validity, infringement, jurisdiction and other matters, almost all of which are subject to an appeal process that are typically lengthy and unpredictable. Moreover, the ruling or decision in one proceeding is not necessarily indicative of rulings or decisions that may be issued in another proceeding, even if the factual and legal matters are similar. We expect that various courts and agencies will issue significant rulings in several of our proceedings within the next year, and the disclosure of those rulings may cause substantial volatility in our stock price. Regardless of the outcome of our actions to enforce our intellectual property rights, we expect to continue to invest financial and management resources in pursuing the actions and related appeals, which may require that we obtain additional capital.

We are and expect to continue to be involved in other legal and administrative proceedings to enforce or protect our intellectual property rights and to defend against claims that we infringe the intellectual property rights of others.

As is common in the semiconductor industry, we have experienced substantial litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. We are currently involved in litigation and proceedings at the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (“PTAB” or the “Board”) based on alleged third-party infringement of our patents, and lawsuits claiming we are infringing others’ intellectual property rights also have been and may in the future be brought against us.

Our business strategy includes litigating claims against others, such as our competitors and customers, to enforce our intellectual property, contractual and commercial rights, including, in particular, our patent portfolio and our trade secrets, as well as to challenge the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. This or other similar proceedings could also subject us to counterclaims or countersuits against us, or the parties we sue could seek to invalidate our patents or other intellectual property rights through reexamination or similar processes at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) or similar bodies. Further, any legal disputes with customers could cause them to cease buying or using our products or the component products we resell or delay their purchase of these products and could substantially damage our relationship with them.

Moreover, our ability to continue to pursue this strategy depends on our ability to obtain and protect patents, which is governed by an uncertain process. In addition to the patent issuance process established by law and the procedures of the USPTO, we must also comply with administrative procedures of the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (“JEDEC”) to protect our intellectual property within its industry standard-setting process. These procedures evolve over time, are subject to variability in their application and may be inconsistent with each other. Any failure to comply with the USPTO’s or JEDEC’s administrative procedures could jeopardize our ability to pursue patent infringement claims.

Making use of new technologies and entering new markets increases the likelihood that others might allege that our products or the component products we resell infringe their intellectual property rights. The likelihood of this type of lawsuit may also be increased due to the limited pool of experienced technical personnel that we can draw on to meet our hiring needs. As a result, a number of our existing employees have worked for our existing or potential competitors at some point during their careers, and we anticipate a number of our future employees will have similar work histories. Moreover, lawsuits of this type may be brought, even if there is no merit to the claim, as a strategy to prevent us from hiring qualified candidates, drain our financial resources and divert management’s attention away from our business.

Litigation is inherently uncertain. An adverse outcome in existing or any future litigation could force us to, among other things:

relinquish patents or other protections of our technologies if they are invalidated, which would enable our competitors and others to freely use this technology;
compete with products that rely on technologies and other intellectual property rights that we believe we have the right to protect from third-party use;
accept terms of an arrangement to license our technologies to a third party that are not as favorable as we might expect;
receive little or no returns for our time and capital investments in the litigation;
cease manufacturing and/or selling products or using certain processes that are claimed to be infringing a third party’s intellectual property;

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pay damages (which in some instances may be three times actual damages), including royalties on past or future sales, if we are found to infringe a third party’s intellectual property;
seek a license from a third-party intellectual property owner to use its technology in our products or the component products we resell, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all; or
redesign any products that are claimed to be infringing a third party’s intellectual property, which may not be possible to do in a timely manner, without incurring significant costs or at all.

Moreover, any litigation, regardless of its outcome, involves a significant dedication of resources, including time and capital, and diverts management’s attention from our other activities. As a result, any current or future infringement claims or patent challenges by or against third parties, whether or not eventually decided in our favor or settled, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, the outcome of pending or future litigation and related patent reviews and reexaminations, as well as any delay in their resolution, could affect our ability to continue to sell our products, protect against competition in the current and expected markets for our products or license or otherwise monetize our intellectual property rights in the future.

The vast majority of our net product sales in recent periods have been generated from resales of products, including products sourced from SK hynix, and any decline in these product resales could significantly harm our performance.

The vast majority of our net product sales in recent periods have been generated from resales of computer memory and storage components and products, including but not limited to SSDs, NAND flash and DIMMs. We resell products to end-customers that are not reached in the distribution models of the component manufacturers, including storage customers, appliance customers, system builders and cloud and datacenter customers.

These resales are subject to a number of risks. For example, demand for any computer memory or storage products could decline at any time for a number of reasons, including, among others, changing customer requirements or preferences, product obsolescence, introduction of more advanced or otherwise superior competing products by our competitors, the ability of our customers to obtain these products or substitute products from alternate sources (including from the manufacturer directly), customers reducing their need for these products generally, or the other risk factors described in this report. We have no long-term agreements or other commitments with respect to sales of these or any of the other products we sell. As a result, any decrease in demand for these products from us would reduce our sale levels and could materially adversely impact our revenues. Additionally, opportunistic purchases of products for resale, when coupled with a decrease in demand, may cause us to write off excess inventory which would adversely affect our operating performance.

We may experience supply shortages at any time and for a variety of reasons, including, among others, spikes in customer demand that cannot be satisfied, any problems that arise with SK hynix’s manufacturing operations or facilities that cause disruptions or delays, or any failure to comply with the terms of the agreements regarding the supply of these products. If we choose, or if we are forced, to seek to supply the component products we resell from other suppliers, we may not be able to identify other suppliers that are available and able to produce the particular components with the specific product specifications and in the quantities our customers require, or we may not be able to make arrangements with any other suppliers in a timely manner to avoid delays in satisfying customer orders. Further, even if we are able to make arrangements with other suppliers for sufficient component products to replace any undersupply from SK hynix, we may not be able to make these arrangements on financial and other terms comparable to those we have negotiated with SK hynix. As a result, any inability to obtain sufficient component products from SK hynix could increase our cost of sales for component product resales if we are forced to pay higher prices to obtain the products from other suppliers. Moreover, all of our supply arrangements for these component products and any arrangements we may establish with other suppliers, are subject to the other supply and manufacturing risks discussed elsewhere in these risk factors.

Increased reliance on product resales also has a substantial impact on our results of operations. Because the cost of the component products we purchase for resale is added to our cost of sales for these products, our gross margin on resales of component products is significantly lower than our gross margin on sales of our own memory subsystem products. As a result, increased resales of component products as a percentage of our total product sales have a significant negative impact on our gross margin and gross margin percentage. This gross margin and gross margin percentage differential between memory product sales and component product resales would be amplified if our costs to

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purchase component products were to increase. The occurrence of any one or more of these risks could cause our performance to materially suffer.

We are subject to risks relating to our focus on developing our CXL products for our target customer markets.

We have historically derived revenues from sales of our high-performance memory products to original equipment manufacturer (“OEMs”) in the server, high-performance computing and communications markets. Although we expect these memory products to continue to account for a portion of our revenues, we have experienced declines in sales of these products in recent periods, and these declines could continue or intensify in the future. We believe market acceptance of these products or derivative products that incorporate our technology is critical to our success, and any continued decline in sales of these products could have a material adverse impact on our performance and long-term prospects.

We have invested significant research and development time and capital in the design of application-specific integrated circuits (“ASICs”) and hybrid devices, including our CXL technology-based memory expansion controller. These products are subject to significant risks, including:

we are dependent on a limited number of suppliers for the non-volatile memory, volatile memory, ASICs, and other components that are essential to the functionality of these products, and in the past, we have experienced supply chain disruptions and shortages of volatile and non-volatile memory components required to create these products as a result of issues that are specific to our suppliers or the industry as a whole;
CXL and some of our other next-generation products may require additional time including the services and attention of key employees who have competing demands on their available time and may require capital investment to bring the products to market;
our development and commercialization strategies for these products;
we are required to demonstrate the quality and reliability of our products to and qualify them with our customers before purchases are made, which requires investments of time and resources in significant and unpredictable amounts prior to the receipt of any revenues from these customers; and
our memory expansion controller products or other new products, such as CXL, may contain currently undiscovered flaws, the correction of which could result in increased costs and time to market.

These and other risks associated with our memory subsystem products could impair our ability to obtain customer or market acceptance of these products or obtain such acceptance in a timely manner, which would reduce our achievable revenues from these products and limit our ability to recoup our investments in developing these technologies.

Additionally, if the demand for servers deteriorates, if the demand for our products to be incorporated in servers continues to decline, or if demand for our products deteriorates because customers in our other target markets change their requirements or preferences or otherwise reduce their need for these types of products generally, our operating results would be adversely affected, and we would be forced to diversify our product portfolio and our target customer markets in order to try to replace revenues lost from the further decreases in product sales. We may not be able to achieve this diversification, and any inability to do so may adversely affect our business, operating performance and prospects.

Sales to a small number of customers have historically represented a significant portion of our net product sales, and the loss of, or a significant reduction in sales to, any one of these customers could materially harm our business.

Our target markets are characterized by a limited number of large companies, and consolidation in one or more of these markets may further increase this concentration. As a result, sales to small numbers of customers have historically represented a substantial portion of our net product sales, and we expect this concentration to continue. Additionally, the composition of major customers and their respective contributions to our net product sales have fluctuated and will likely continue to fluctuate from period to period as our existing and prospective customers progress

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through the life cycle of the products they produce and sell and experience resulting fluctuations in their product demand. We believe our performance depends in significant part on our ability to establish and maintain relationships with and effect substantial sales to our large customers.

We do not have long-term agreements with any of our customers and, as result, any or all of them could decide at any time to decrease, delay or discontinue their purchase of our products or the component products we resell. In addition, the prices customers pay for products are subject to fluctuations, and large or key customers may exert pressure on us to make concessions in the prices at which we sell products to them. Further, we may not be able to sell some of our products developed for one customer to a different customer because our products are often customized to address specific customer requirements, and even if we are able to sell these products to another customer, our margin on these products may be reduced. Additionally, although customers are generally allowed only limited rights of return after purchasing our products or the component products we resell, we may determine that it is in our best interest to accept returns from certain large or key customers even if we are not contractually obligated to accept them in order to maintain good relations with these customers. Any returns beyond our expectations could negatively impact our operating results. Moreover, because a few customers often account for a substantial portion of our net product sales, the failure of any one of these customers to pay on a timely basis would negatively impact our cash flows. As a result, our net product sales and operating results could be materially adversely affected by the loss of any of our customers, particularly our large or key customers, a decrease in product sales to any of our customers, including as a result of normal fluctuations in demand or other factors, reductions in the prices at which we sell products to any of our customers, including as a result of price concessions or general declines in average sale prices, or difficulties collecting payments from any of our customers.

Our ability to maintain or increase our product sales to our key customers depends on a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include our customers’ continued sales of servers and other computing systems that incorporate our memory subsystems, our customers’ continued incorporation of our products or the component products we resell into their systems, and our customers’ sales activity and business results. Because of these and other factors, sales to these customers may not continue and the amount of such sales may not reach or exceed historical levels in any future period.

We are subject to risks of disruption in the supply of component products.

Our ability to fulfill customer orders for or produce qualification samples of our products, as well as orders for the components and/or products we resell, is dependent on a sufficient supply of SSDs, field programmable gate arrays, ASICs, volatile memory components, and non-volatile memory components. Further, there are a relatively small number of suppliers of these components, and we typically purchase from only a subset of these suppliers. As a result, our inventory purchases have historically been concentrated in a small number of suppliers, including SK hynix, from which we obtained a large portion of our products purchased for resale. We also use consumables and other components, including printed circuit boards, to manufacture our memory subsystems, which we sometimes procure from single or limited sources to take advantage of volume pricing discounts.

From time to time, shortages in SSDs, volatile memory components, and/or non-volatile memory components have required some suppliers to limit the supply of these components. In the past, we have experienced supply chain disruptions and shortages of SSDs, volatile memory components, and/or non-volatile memory components required to create certain of our memory subsystem products, and we have been forced to procure the component products we resell from other suppliers to the extent sufficient product is not available from SK hynix to meet customer demand or in the event of other SK hynix supply issues. We are continually working to secure adequate supplies of the components necessary to fill customers’ orders in a timely manner. If we are unable to obtain a sufficient supply of SSDs, volatile memory components, non-volatile memory components and/or other essential components, as a result of a natural disaster, political unrest, military conflict, labor disruptions, medical epidemics, climate change, economic instability, equipment failure or other cause, to avoid interruptions or failures in the delivery of our products as required by our customers or the delivery of these components to customers to whom we resell them directly, these customers may reduce future orders for these products or not purchase these products from us at all, which could cause our net product sales to decline and harm our operating results. In addition, our reputation could be harmed due to failures to meet our customers’ demands and, even assuming we are successful in resolving supply chain disruptions, we may not be able to

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replace any lost business and we may lose market share to our competitors. Further, if our suppliers are unable to produce qualification samples of our products on a timely basis or at all, we could experience delays in the qualification process with existing or prospective customers, which could have a significant impact on our ability to sell our products. Moreover, if we are not able to obtain these components in the amounts needed on a timely basis and at commercially reasonable prices, we may not be able to develop or introduce new products, we may experience significant increases in our cost of sales if we are forced to procure components from alternative suppliers and are not able to negotiate favorable terms with these suppliers, or we may be forced to cease our sales of products dependent on the components or resales of the components we sell to customers directly.

Our dependence on a small number of suppliers and the components we resell expose us to several risks, including the inability to obtain an adequate supply of these components, increases in their costs, delivery delays and poor quality. Additionally, our customers qualify certain of the components provided by our suppliers for use in their systems. If one of our suppliers experiences quality control or other problems, it may be disqualified by one or more of our customers. This would disrupt our supplies of these components and would also reduce the number of suppliers available to us and may require that we qualify a new supplier, which we may not be able to do.

Declines in customer demand for our products in recent periods have caused us to reduce our purchases of SSDs, volatile memory components, and non-volatile memory components for use in our products. Such declines or other fluctuations could continue in the future. If we fail to maintain sufficient purchase levels with some suppliers, our ability to obtain supplies of these raw materials may be impaired due to the practice of some suppliers of allocating their products to customers with the highest regular demand.

Frequent technology changes and the introduction of next-generation versions of component products may also result in the obsolescence of our inventory on-hand, which could involve significant time and costs to replace, reduce our net product sales and gross margin and adversely affect our operating performance and financial condition.

Our customers require that our products undergo a lengthy and expensive qualification process without any assurance of sales.

Our prospective customers generally test and evaluate our memory subsystems before purchasing our products and integrating them into their systems. This extensive qualification process involves rigorous reliability testing and evaluation of our products, which may continue for nine months or longer and is often subject to delays. In addition to qualification of specific products, some of our customers may also require us to undergo a technology qualification if our product designs incorporate innovative technologies that the customer may not have previously encountered. Such technology qualifications often take substantially longer than product qualifications and can take over a year to complete. Even after our products are qualified with existing or new customers, the customer may take several months to begin purchasing the product or may decide not to purchase the product at all, as qualification does not ensure product sales. As a result, we could receive no or limited revenues from a customer even after our investment of time and resources in the qualification process with this customer, which could adversely affect our operating results.

Even after successful qualification and sales of our products to a customer, because the qualification process is both product-specific and platform-specific, our existing customers sometimes require us to re-qualify our products or to qualify our new products for use in new platforms or applications. For example, as our OEM customers transition from prior generation architectures to current generation architectures, we must design and qualify new products for use by these customers. Our net product sales to these customers can decline significantly during this re-qualification process.

Likewise, changes in our products, our manufacturing facilities, our production processes or our component suppliers may require a new qualification process. For example, if our SSD, volatile memory component, and non-volatile memory component suppliers discontinue production of these products or components, it may be necessary for us to design and qualify new products for our customers. As a result, some customers may require us, or we may decide, to purchase an estimated quantity of discontinued memory components necessary to ensure a steady supply of existing products until products with new components can be qualified. Purchases of this nature may affect our liquidity. Additionally, our forecasts of quantities required during the transition may be incorrect, which could adversely impact our results of operations through lost revenue opportunities or charges related to excess and obsolete inventory.

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We must devote substantial resources, including design, engineering, sales, marketing and management efforts, to qualify our products with prospective customers in anticipation of sales. Significant delays or other difficulties in the qualification process could result in an inability to keep pace with rapid technology change or new competitive products. If we experience delays or do not succeed in qualifying a product with an existing or prospective customer, we would not be able to sell that product to that customer, which may result in excess and obsolete inventory that we may not be able to sell to another customer and could reduce our net product sales and customer base, any of which could materially harm our operating results and business.

If we are unable to timely and cost-effectively develop new or enhanced products that achieve customer and market acceptance or technologies we can monetize, our revenues and prospects could be materially harmed.

Our industry is characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards and rapid product obsolescence. As a result, continuous development of new technology, processes and product innovations is necessary in order to be successful. We believe the continued and timely development of new products and technologies and improvement of existing products and technologies are critical to our business and prospects for growth.

In order to develop and introduce new or enhanced products and technologies, we need to:

retain and continue to attract new engineers with expertise in memory subsystems and our other key technology competencies;
identify and adjust to the changing requirements and preferences of our existing and potential future customers and markets;
identify and adapt to emerging technological trends and evolving industry standards in our markets;
continue to develop and enhance our design tools, manufacturing processes and other technologies on which we rely to produce new products or product enhancements;
design and introduce cost-effective, innovative and performance-enhancing features that differentiate our products and technologies from those of our competitors;
secure licenses to enable us to use any technologies, processes or other rights needed for the manufacture or use of any new products or product enhancements we may develop, which licenses may not be available when needed, on acceptable terms or at all;
maintain or develop new relationships with suppliers of components required for any new or enhanced products and technologies;
qualify any new or enhanced products for use in our customers’ products; and
develop and maintain effective commercialization and marketing strategies.

We may not be successful at any of these activities. As a result, we may not be able to successfully develop new or enhanced products or technology or we may experience delays in this process. Failures or delays in product development and introduction could result in the loss of, or delays in generating, net products sales or other revenues and the loss of key customer relationships. Even if we develop new or enhanced products or technologies, they may not meet our customers’ requirements, gain market acceptance or attract monetization opportunities, as our product and technology development efforts are inherently risky due to the challenges of foreseeing changes or developments in technology, predicting changes in customer requirements or preferences or anticipating the adoption of new industry standards. Moreover, we have invested significant resources in our product and technology development efforts, which would be lost if we fail to generate revenues from these efforts. If any of these risks occur, our revenues, prospects and reputation could be materially adversely affected.

We face intense competition in our industry, and we may not be able to compete successfully in our target markets.

Our products are primarily targeted to OEMs in the server, high-performance computing and communications markets. In addition, we resell certain component products to storage customers, appliance customers, system builders and cloud and datacenter customers. These markets are intensely competitive, as numerous companies vie for business opportunities at a limited number of large OEMs and other customers. We face competition from volatile memory component suppliers, memory module providers, and logic suppliers for many of our products. We also face competition

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from the manufacturers and distributors of the component products we resell to customers, as these manufacturers and distributors could decide at any time to sell these component products to these customers directly. Additionally, if and to the extent we enter new markets or pursue licensing arrangements to monetize our technologies and intellectual property portfolio, we may face competition from a large number of competitors that produce solutions utilizing similar or competing technologies.

Some of our customers and suppliers may have proprietary products or technologies that are competitive with our products or the components we resell to them or could develop internal solutions or enter into strategic relationships with, or acquire, other high-density memory module or component providers. Any of these actions could reduce our customers’ demand for our products or the component products we resell. Additionally, some of our significant suppliers could choose to sell component products to customers directly, which would adversely affect our ability to resell these products or may choose to manufacture competitive memory subsystem products themselves or reduce our supply of essential components of our products, which could adversely affect our ability to manufacture and sell our memory subsystems.

We believe our ability to compete in our current target markets and potential future markets will depend in part on our ability to successfully and timely develop, introduce and sell at attractive prices new and enhanced products or technologies and otherwise respond to changing market requirements, which we may not be able to do faster and better than our competitors. Moreover, many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical, marketing, distribution and other resources, broader product lines, lower cost structures, greater brand recognition, more influence on industry standards, more extensive or established patent portfolios and longer standing relationships with customers and suppliers. We may not be able to compete effectively against any of these organizations. If we are unable to compete effectively, then our market position and prospects could deteriorate and our revenues could decline.

Semiconductor memory and storage markets are highly competitive which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition.

The semiconductor memory and storage markets are generally highly competitive and companies may use aggressive pricing to obtain market share. Our suppliers may seek to increase wafer output, improve yields, and reduce die size, which could result in significant increases in worldwide supply and downward pressure on prices. Increases in worldwide supply of semiconductor memory and storage also result from fabrication capacity expansions, either by way of new facilities, increased capacity utilization, or reallocation of other semiconductor production to semiconductor memory and storage production. Increases in worldwide supply of semiconductor memory and storage could lead to declines in average selling prices and a decrease in short-term and/or long-term demand resulting in industry oversupply and could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition.

Our operating results may be adversely impacted by worldwide economic and political uncertainties and specific conditions in the markets we address and in which we or our strategic partners or competitors do business, including the cyclical nature of and volatility in the memory market and semiconductor industry.

Changes in domestic and global economic and political conditions make it difficult for our customers, our vendors and us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities, and these conditions have caused and could continue to cause United States and foreign businesses to slow or decrease spending on our products and the products we resell.

In addition, sales of our products and the products we resell are dependent on demand by customers in our target markets. These markets are characterized by wide fluctuations in product supply and demand and have been cyclical in the past, which may result in substantial period-to-period fluctuations in our operating results. In addition, these markets have in the past experienced significant downturns, often connected with or in anticipation of maturing product cycles, reductions in technology spending and declines in general economic conditions. During these downturns, product demand diminishes, production capacity exceeds demand, inventory levels increase and average sale prices decline, all of which would materially adversely impact our business and operating results. In addition, because many of our costs and operating expenses are relatively fixed, if we are unable to control our expenses adequately in response to reduced product demand and sales, our gross margin and cash flows would be negatively impacted. Further, such a

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downturn could decrease the perceived value of our intellectual property portfolio and reduce our ability to pursue our intellectual property monetization objectives.

During challenging economic times, our customers may face challenges gaining timely access to sufficient credit, which could impair their ability to make timely payments to us. This may negatively affect our liquidity and cash flows and require us to increase our allowance for doubtful accounts. Furthermore, our vendors may face similar issues gaining access to credit, which may limit their ability to supply components or provide trade credit to us. We are monitoring ongoing events involving limited liquidity, defaults, non-performance or other adverse developments that affect financial institutions or other companies in the financial services industry or the financial services industry generally. We are also monitoring the impacts that these events may have on our customers and vendors.

We cannot predict the timing, strength or duration of any economic slowdown or subsequent economic recovery, either generally or in our customer markets. If the economy or markets in which we operate experience such a slowdown, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The combination of our lengthy sales cycle coupled with any challenging macroeconomic conditions could compound the negative impact of any such downturn on the results of our operations.

Our lack of a significant backlog of unfilled orders and the difficulty inherent in estimating customer demand makes it difficult to forecast our short-term requirements, and any failure to optimally calibrate our production capacity and inventory levels to meet customer demand could adversely affect our revenues, gross margin and earnings.

We make significant decisions regarding the levels of business we will seek and accept, production schedules, component procurement, personnel needs and other resource requirements based on our estimates of customer demand. We do not have long-term agreements with any of our customers. Instead, our product sales are made primarily pursuant to stand-alone purchase orders that we often receive no more than two weeks in advance of the desired delivery date and that may be rescheduled or cancelled on relatively short notice. The short-term nature of the commitments by many of our customers and our customers’ ability to cancel or defer purchase orders for any reason reduces our backlog of firm orders and our ability to accurately estimate future customer requirements for our products or the component products we resell. These facts, combined with the short turnaround times that apply to most orders, makes it difficult to predict our production and inventory needs and allocate production capacity and capital for inventory purchases effectively. As a result, we attempt to forecast the demand for the components needed to manufacture our products and to resell to customers directly, but any such forecasts could turn out to be wrong. Further, lead times for components vary significantly and depend on various factors, such as the specific supplier and the demand and supply for a component at any given time.

Our production expense and component purchase levels are to a large extent fixed in the short term. As a result, we may be unable to adjust spending on a timely basis to compensate for any unexpected shortfall in customer orders. If we overestimate customer demand, we may have excess component or finished goods inventory, which may not be able to be used in other products or resold and may become obsolete before any such use or resale. If there is a subsequent decline in the prices of components, the value of our inventory would fall and we may be required to write-down the value of our component inventory, which may result in a significant increase in our cost of sales and decrease in our gross margin. In the past, we have had to write-down inventory due to obsolescence, excess quantities and declines in market value below our costs. As a result, any significant shortfall of customer orders in relation to our expectations could hurt our operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

Conversely, any rapid increases in demand by our customers could strain our resources. If we underestimate customer demand, we may not have sufficient inventory of necessary components on hand to meet that demand and we may need to try to procure additional quantities, which may not be available or may only be available at high prices or on otherwise unfavorable terms. We also may not have sufficient manufacturing capacity at any given time to meet any demands for rapid increases in production of our memory subsystem products. Any shortages of inventory or manufacturing capacity could lead to delays in the delivery of products, which may force us to forego sales opportunities, reduce our net product sales and damage our customer relationships.

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In addition, if our product demand forecasts are wrong, we may understate or overstate the provision required for excess and obsolete inventory. If our inventories are determined to be overvalued, we would be required to recognize additional expense in our cost of sales at the time of the determination. Conversely, if our inventories are determined to be undervalued, we may have over-reported our costs of sales in previous periods and would be required to recognize additional gross margin at the time the inventories are sold.

Declines in our average sale prices, driven by volatile prices for components and other factors, may result in declines in our revenues and gross margin.

Our industry has historically been characterized by declines in average sale prices. If sale price declines are not offset by corresponding decreases in costs or increases in sales volume or sales of products with higher margins, these sale price declines could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

The prices customers pay for the products we sell can fluctuate due to many factors, including, among others, competitive conditions in our key customer markets, changes in customer requirements or preferences, volatility in the market prices for SSDs, volatile memory components, non-volatile memory components, and other components or products, and changes in manufacturing efficiencies or capacities related to the aforementioned. Market prices for component products have historically constituted a substantial portion of the total cost of our memory subsystems and in recent periods have constituted the vast majority of the cost of resales of these products to customers directly. As a result, fluctuations in the prices for these component products, due to overcapacity in worldwide supply or increased manufacturing efficiencies, implementation of new manufacturing processes or expansion of manufacturing capacity by component suppliers, among other factors, significantly impact our costs to sell our products or component products.

Once our prices with a customer are negotiated, we are generally unable to revise pricing with that customer until our next regularly scheduled price adjustment. As a result, if market prices for essential components increase, we generally cannot pass the price increases through to our customers for products purchased under an existing purchase order. Consequently, we are exposed to the risks associated with the volatility of prices for these components and our cost of sales could increase and our gross margin could decrease in the event of sudden price increases. Alternatively, if there are declines in the prices of these components, we may be required to reduce our selling prices for subsequent purchase orders, which may result in a decline in our net product sales.

Our manufacturing operations involve significant risks.

We maintain a manufacturing facility in the PRC at which we produce a portion of our products. These manufacturing activities require significant resources to maintain. For instance, we must continuously review and improve our manufacturing processes in order to maintain satisfactory manufacturing yields and product performance, try to lower our costs and otherwise remain competitive. As we manufacture new and more complex products, the risk of encountering delays, difficulties or higher costs increases. In addition, the start-up costs associated with implementing new manufacturing technologies, methods and processes, including the purchase of new equipment and any resulting manufacturing delays and inefficiencies, could negatively impact our results of operations.

Additionally, we could experience a prolonged disruption, material malfunction, interruption or other loss of operations at our manufacturing facility for any number of reasons, including the occurrence of a contagious disease or illness, or cyber-attacks, or catastrophic weather events, labor disruptions, or we may need to add manufacturing capacity to satisfy any increased demand for our products. Under these circumstances, we may be forced to rely on third parties for our manufacturing needs, which could increase our manufacturing costs, decrease our gross margin, decrease our control over manufacturing processes, limit our ability to satisfy customer requirements and demand and delay new product development until we could secure a relationship with a third-party manufacturer, which we may not be able to do in a timely manner, on acceptable terms or at all. If any of these risks occur, our operations, performance and customer relationships could be severely harmed.

We also may need to expand our existing manufacturing facility or establish a new facility in the future. Any need to expand or replace our manufacturing facility would be expensive and time-consuming and could also subject us to factory audits by our customers that could themselves result in delays, unexpected costs or customer losses if we

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cannot meet the standards of any such audits. Further, we may not be able to replace or increase our manufacturing capacity at all. The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We depend on third parties to design and manufacture components for our products and the component products we resell, which exposes us to risks.

Components that are used in our products, as well as all of the component products we resell, are designed and manufactured by third parties. In addition, some of our memory subsystem products rely on significantly customized components. The ability and willingness of third parties to enter into these engagements with us and perform in accordance with these engagements is largely outside our control. If one or more of our design or manufacturing partners experiences a manufacturing disruption for any number of factors including labor disruptions, catastrophic weather events, political instability, acts of terror or war, and military hostilities in multiple geographies (including the ongoing conflict in Ukraine and recent events in Israel and Palestine), and the occurrence of a contagious disease or illness, fails to dedicate adequate resources to the production of the components we use in our products or the components we resell, experiences financial instability or otherwise fails to perform its obligations to us in a timely manner or at satisfactory quality levels, our ability to bring products to market or deliver products to our customers, as well as our reputation, could suffer and our business and prospects could be materially harmed. In the event of any failure by our component manufacturers, we may have no readily available alternative source of supply for these components, since, in our experience, the lead time needed to establish a relationship with a new design or manufacturing partner is substantial, and the time for our OEM customers to re-qualify our products with components from a new vendor is also significant. Additionally, even if an alternative manufacturer is available, we may not be able to engage the manufacturer on acceptable terms, which could result in increased costs, timing requirements or other adverse changes. Further, we may not be able to redesign the customized components used in our products to be manufactured by a new manufacturer, in which case we could infringe on the intellectual property of our current design or manufacturing partner when we manufacture the products with a new design or manufacturing partner. Such an occurrence could force us to stop selling certain of our products or could expose us to lawsuits, license payments or other liabilities.

Our dependence on third-party manufacturers exposes us to many other risks, including, among others: reduced control over delivery schedules, quality, manufacturing yields and costs; the potential lack of adequate capacity during periods of excess demand; limited warranties on products supplied to us; and potential infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property or the intellectual property of others. We are dependent on our manufacturing partners to manufacture components with acceptable quality and manufacturing yields, to deliver these components to us on a timely basis and at an acceptable cost and to allocate a portion of their manufacturing capacity sufficient to meet our needs. However, these component manufacturers may not be able to achieve these tasks. Additionally, our manufacturing partners may not continue to devote adequate resources to produce our products or the component products we resell or continue to advance the process design technologies on which the customer qualifications of our products are based. Any of these risks could limit our ability to meet customer demand and materially adversely affect our business and operating results.

If our products or the component products we resell do not meet quality standards or are defective or used in defective systems, we may be subject to quality holds, warranty claims, recalls or liability claims.

Our customers require our products and the component products we resell to meet strict quality standards. If the products fail to meet these standards, our customers may discontinue purchases from us until we are able to resolve the quality issues that are causing these failures, which we may not be able to do. These “quality holds” can be costly and time-consuming to resolve. In addition, if the products we sell are defectively manufactured, contain defective components or are used in defective or malfunctioning systems, we could be subject to warranty and product liability claims, product recalls, safety alerts or advisory notices.

Although we generally attempt to contractually limit our exposure to incidental and consequential damages, if these contract provisions are not enforced or if liabilities arise that are not effectively limited, we could incur substantial costs in defending or settling product liability claims. While we currently have product liability insurance, it may not

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provide coverage under certain circumstances, and it may not be adequate to satisfy claims made against us. We also may be unable to maintain insurance in the future at satisfactory rates or in adequate amounts.

Warranty and product liability claims, product “quality holds,” product recalls, safety alerts or advisory notices, regardless of their coverage by insurance or their ultimate outcome, could have a material adverse effect on our business, performance and financial condition, as well as our ability to attract and retain customers.

Our indemnification obligations for the infringement by our products of the rights of others could require us to pay substantial damages.

As is common in our industry, we have a number of agreements in which we have agreed to defend, indemnify and hold harmless our customers and suppliers from damages and costs that may arise from the infringement by our products of third-party patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights. The scope of these indemnities varies, the duration of these indemnities is generally perpetual after execution of an agreement, and the maximum potential amount of future payments we could be required to make under these indemnities is often unlimited. Any indemnification claims by customers could require us to incur significant legal fees and could potentially result in our payment of substantial damages, and our insurance generally would not cover these fees or damages. As a result, the occurrence of any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We depend on certain key employees, and our business could be harmed if we lose the services of any of these employees or are unable to attract and retain other qualified personnel.

To date, we have been highly dependent on the experience, relationships and technical knowledge of certain key employees. We believe our future success will be dependent on our ability to retain the services of these key employees, develop their successors and properly manage the transition of their roles should departures occur. The loss of these key employees or their inability to continue to provide their services could delay the development and introduction of new or enhanced products or technologies, negatively impact our ability to sell our existing products, limit our ability to pursue our other business goals and strategies and otherwise harm our business. We do not have employment agreements with any of our employees other than Chun K. Hong, our President, Chief Executive Officer and sole member of our board of directors, and as a result most of our employees may terminate their employment with us at any time.

Our future success also depends on our ability to attract, retain and motivate highly skilled engineering, manufacturing and other technical and sales personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense. We may not be successful in attracting new engineers or other technical personnel or in retaining or motivating our existing personnel. If we are unable to hire and retain personnel with the skills necessary to keep pace with the evolving technologies in our markets, our ability to continue to provide our existing products and to develop new or enhanced products and technologies would be negatively impacted, which could harm our business. In addition, a general shortage of experienced engineers or other technical personnel could lead to increased recruiting, relocation and compensation costs to attract new recruits, which may increase our operating expenses or make these hires more difficult or impossible if increased recruiting costs exceed our resources.

A significant portion of our workforce consists of contract personnel. We invest considerable time and expense to train these contract personnel; however, they typically may terminate their relationships with us at any time. As a result, we may experience high turnover rates in this contract personnel workforce, which may require us to expend additional resources to attract, train and retain replacements. Additionally, if we convert any of these contract personnel to permanent employees, we may have to pay finder’s fees to the contract agency. These risks associated with our contract personnel workforce may involve increased costs or delays or failures in meeting customer requirements or developing new or enhanced products or technologies, any of which could materially adversely affect our business and operating performance.

We are also subject to employment laws and regulations, including the changing regulatory landscape. For example, in California, State Assembly Bill 5 (“AB5”), which went into effect in January 2020, codifies a test to determine whether a worker is an employee under California law. AB5 provides a mechanism for determining whether workers of a hiring entity are employees or independent contractors, but AB5 does not result in any immediate change in

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how workers are classified. If the State of California, cities or municipalities, or workers disagree with how a hiring entity classifies workers, AB5 sets forth the test for evaluating their classification. The legal and other costs associated with any misclassification of our personnel can be substantial and could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We rely on our internal and third-party sales representatives to market and sell our products and the component products we resell, and any failure by these representatives to perform as expected could reduce our sales.

We primarily market and sell our products and the component products we resell through a direct sales force and a network of independent sales representatives. We have expended significant resources to build our internal sales and marketing function, but compared to many of our competitors, we have relatively little experience creating a sales and marketing platform and developing a team to implement it. We may be unsuccessful in these efforts.

Our sales representatives generally may terminate their relationships with us at any time. As a result, our performance depends in part on our ability to retain existing and attract additional sales representatives that will be able to effectively market and support our products or the component products we resell, especially in markets in which we have not previously distributed these products. Our efforts to attract, train and retain these sales representatives to be knowledgeable about our industry, products and technologies are costly and time-consuming. If these efforts fail, our investments in these sales representatives may not produce the expected or any benefits and our ability to market and sell our products or the component products we resell may be limited, which could materially harm our financial condition and operating results. Further, our reliance on independent sales representatives subjects us to risks, as we have very little control over their activities and they are generally free to market and sell other, potentially competing, products. As a result, these independent sales representatives could devote insufficient time or resources to marketing our products or the component products we resell, could market them in an ineffective manner or could otherwise be unsuccessful in selling adequate quantities of these products.

Our operations could be disrupted by power outages, natural disasters, cyber-attacks or other factors.

Due to the geographic concentration of our manufacturing operations in our PRC facility and our small number of suppliers, including SK hynix for many of the components and/or products we resell, a disruption resulting from equipment or power failures, quality control issues, human errors, government intervention, cyber-attacks or natural disasters, including earthquakes and floods, could require significant costs to repair and could interrupt or interfere with product manufacture and sale and cause significant delays in product shipments, which could harm our customer relationships, financial condition and results of operations. In the past, our PRC facility has suffered water damage as a result of heavy rains and floods, which forced us to temporarily halt manufacturing at the facility while necessary repairs or equipment replacements were made. This incident caused us to incur additional expenses because we were forced to shift our manufacturing activities to a third-party facility in the PRC to mitigate the disruption in product shipments to our customers. If manufacturing at the PRC facility is disrupted for similar or other reasons in the future, we may again be subject to increased expenses in order to engage a third-party manufacturer, or, if we are not able to secure alternative manufacturing capabilities, our ability to sell products and our relationships with our customers could be materially harmed. Additionally, we may be forced to bear significant costs in order to repair any damage to our manufacturing equipment and facility. Any of these outcomes could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Difficulties with our global information technology systems, including any unauthorized access or cyber-attacks, could harm our business.

We store key data about our business, including certain customer data, information about our and our customers’ intellectual property and other proprietary information, on our global information technology systems. Any failure or malfunctioning of our global information technology systems, errors or misuse by system users, cyber-attacks, difficulties migrating stand-alone systems to our centralized systems or inadequacy of the systems in addressing the needs of our operations could disrupt our ability to timely and accurately manufacture and ship products, divert management’s and key employees’ attention from other business matters and involve significant costs and other resources to repair or otherwise resolve, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial

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condition and results of operations. Any such event could also disrupt our ability to timely and accurately process, report and evaluate key operating metrics and key components of our results of operations, financial position and cash flows and could adversely affect our ability to complete other important business processes, such as maintenance of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting.

While our information technology systems include security measures designed to prevent unauthorized access, employee error, employee malfeasance, or other causes including intentional misconduct by computer hackers, could circumvent these measures and result in unauthorized access to these systems. Because the techniques used to gain unauthorized access to information technology systems evolve frequently and often are not recognized until successful, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures in a timely manner. Any security breach could require significant resources to correct, if correction is possible, and could result in disruption to our business, misappropriation or loss of data, loss of confidence in us by our customers, damage to our reputation, and legal liability. Further, any failure to implement appropriate security measures to protect our information or any breach or other failure of our systems that results in unauthorized access, manipulation, disclosure or loss of this information could result in our violation of any U.S. or foreign data protection laws that are applicable to us, including the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) which went into effect in January 2020. Further, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), which became effective in 2023 and amends the CCPA, creates additional obligations with respect to processing and storing personal information, as well as establishes a new regulatory authority to enforce the CCPA and CPRA. Unlike other state privacy laws, the CCPA also regulates personal information collected in a business to business and in human resources contexts which impacts our business operations. Further, there continues to be some uncertainly about how certain provisions of the CCPA will be interpreted and how the law will be enforced. These laws and their interpretation and application are constantly evolving, and they could be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our current practices or they could become more stringent over time. Efforts to comply with applicable data protection laws or any new interpretations of their application could involve significant time and substantial costs or require us to change our business practices and compliance procedures, and any failures to so comply could subject us to substantial civil or criminal fines or sanctions. Any of these outcomes could have a material negative impact on our business, performance and prospects.

Our operations in China could also be subject to recent significant developments concerning privacy and data security. The Data Security Law of the People’s Republic of China (“Data Security Law”), which took effect on September 1, 2021, requires data processing (which includes the collection, storage, use, processing, transmission, provision and publication of data), to be conducted in a legitimate and proper manner. The Data Security Law imposes data security and privacy obligations on entities and individuals carrying out data processing activities and also introduces a data classification and hierarchical protection system based on the importance of data in economic and social development and the degree of harm it may cause to national security, public interests, or legitimate rights and interests of individuals or organizations if such data are tampered with, destroyed, leaked, illegally acquired or illegally used. The appropriate level of protection measures is required to be taken for each respective category of data. Also in China, the Personal Information Protection Law, which took effect on November 1, 2023, introduced stringer protection measures for processing personal information. We may be required to make further adjustments to our business practices to comply with the data security and data protection laws in China, and such regulations may interfere with intended business activities, or cause us to incur additional costs.

If we do not effectively manage any future growth we may experience, our resources, systems and controls may be strained and our results of operations may suffer.

Any future growth we may experience could strain our resources, management, information and telecommunication systems and operating and financial controls. To manage future growth effectively, including any expansion of volume in our manufacturing facility in the PRC, we must be able to improve and expand our systems and controls, which we may not be able to do in a timely or cost-effective manner. In addition, our management team has relatively limited experience managing a rapidly growing business. As a result, they may not be able to manage any future growth we may experience. A failure to manage any growth we may experience or improve or expand our existing systems and controls, or unexpected difficulties in doing so, could harm our business and results of operations.

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If we acquire businesses or technologies or pursue other strategic transactions or relationships in the future, these transactions could disrupt our business and harm our operating results and financial condition.

From time to time, we evaluate opportunities to acquire businesses or technologies or pursue other strategic transactions or relationships, including collaboration or joint development arrangements, which might complement our current product offerings or enhance our intellectual property portfolio or technical capabilities.

Acquisitions and other strategic transactions or relationships entail a number of risks that could adversely affect our business and operating results, including, among others:

difficulties integrating the operations, technologies or products of acquired companies or working with third parties with which we may partner on joint development or collaboration relationships;
the diversion of management’s time and attention from the daily operations of our business;
insufficient increases in revenues to offset increased expenses associated with an acquisition or strategic transaction or relationship;
difficulties retaining business relationships with our existing suppliers and customers or the suppliers and customers of an acquired company;
overestimation of potential synergies or other benefits, or a delay in realizing these synergies or other benefits;
entering markets in which we have no or limited experience and in which competitors have stronger market positions;
the potential loss of our key employees or an acquired company;
exposure to contingent liabilities of an acquired company;
depletion of cash resources to fund an acquisition or other strategic transaction or establish a strategic relationship, or dilution of existing stockholders or increased leverage relative to our earnings or to our equity capitalization if we issue debt or equity securities for these purposes;
adverse tax consequences; and
incurrence of material charges, such as depreciation, deferred compensation charges, in-process research and development charges, the amortization of amounts related to deferred stock-based compensation expense and identifiable purchased intangible assets or impairment of goodwill.

If any of these risks occur, we may not be able to realize the intended benefits of an acquisition or strategic transaction or relationship, and our operating results, financial condition and business prospects could be materially negatively affected.

Increased prices and inflation could negatively impact our margin performance and our financial results.

Increased inflation, including rising prices for raw materials, parts and components, freight, packaging, labor and energy increases, the costs to manufacture and distribute our products, and we may be unable to pass these costs on to our customers. Additionally, we are exposed to fluctuations in other costs such as packaging, freight, labor and energy prices. If inflation in these costs increases beyond our ability to control for them through measures such as implementing operating efficiencies, we may not be able to increase prices to sufficiently offset the effect of various cost increases without negatively impacting customer demand, thereby negatively impacting our margin performance and results of operations.

Geopolitical risks associated with the ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and Israel and Palestine could result in increased market volatility and uncertainty, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The uncertain nature, scope, magnitude, and duration of hostilities stemming from Russia’s military invasion of Ukraine, including the potential effects of such hostilities as well as sanctions, embargoes, asset freezes, cyber-attacks and other actions taken in response to such hostilities on the world economy and markets, and the ongoing conflict between Israel and Palestine have disrupted global markets and contributed to increased market volatility and

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uncertainty, which could have an adverse impact on macroeconomic and other factors that affect our business and supply chain. Any disruption in our supply chain could reduce our revenue and adversely impact our financial results. Such a disruption could occur as a result of any number of events, including, but not limited to, military conflicts, geopolitical developments, war or terrorism, including the ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and Israel and Palestine, regional or global pandemics, and disruptions in utility and other services. Any inability to obtain adequate deliveries or any other circumstance that would require us to seek alternative sources of supply or to manufacture, assemble, and test such components internally could significantly delay our ability to ship our products, which could damage relationships with current and prospective customers and could harm our reputation and brand and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

In February 2022, in response to the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the United States and other North Atlantic Treaty Organization member states, as well as non-member states, announced targeted economic sanctions on Russia, including certain Russian citizens and enterprises, and the continuation of the conflict may trigger additional economic and other sanctions. The potential impacts of the conflict and related sanctions could include supply chain and logistics disruptions, macro financial impacts resulting from the exclusion of Russian financial institutions from the global banking system, volatility in foreign exchange rates and interest rates, inflationary pressures on raw materials and energy and heightened cybersecurity threats. We do not and cannot know if the conflict, which remains ongoing, could escalate and result in broader economic and security concerns which could adversely affect our supply chain, suppliers, customers, and potential customers. It is not possible to predict the broader consequences of this conflict, which could include further sanctions, embargoes, regional instability, geopolitical shifts and adverse effects on macroeconomic conditions, the availability and cost of materials, supplies, labor, currency exchange rates and financial markets, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Laws and Regulations

We are exposed to additional business, regulatory, political, operational, financial and economic risks related to our international sales and operations.

We sell products to foreign corporations and deliver products to facilities located in foreign countries. To facilitate this process and to meet the long-term projected demand for our products, we have established a manufacturing facility in the PRC that performs most of the manufacturing activities for our memory subsystem products.

Selling and manufacturing in foreign countries subjects us to additional risks not present with our domestic operations, as we are operating in business and regulatory environments in which we have limited experience and that may impose materially different requirements. Further, the geographic distance from our headquarters in Irvine, California, compounds the difficulties of maintaining a manufacturing operation in the PRC. For instance, we may not be able to maintain the desired amount of control over production capacity and timing, inventory levels, product quality, delivery schedules, manufacturing yields or costs. Moreover, we will need to continue to overcome language and cultural barriers to effectively conduct these international operations. Failures in any of these areas could result in legal consequences or production delays and increased turnaround times, which could adversely affect our business. In addition, changes to the labor or other laws of the PRC or the economic and political conditions in the PRC, including increased industrialization in recent years, natural disasters, public health crises, including the occurrence of a contagious disease or illness, and other catastrophic events, could increase the costs of employing a local workforce or conducting our manufacturing operations in the PRC. Any of these factors could negatively impact any cost savings we experience from locating our manufacturing facility in the PRC. For example, in December 2021, the United States adopted the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act (“UFLPA”) which creates a rebuttable presumption that any goods, wares, articles, and merchandise mined, produced, or manufactured in whole or in part in the Xinjiang Uyghur Administrative Region of the PRC or that are produced by certain entities are prohibited from importation into the United States. These import restrictions came into effect on June 21, 2022. While we are not presently aware of any direct impacts of these restrictions on our supply chain, the UFLPA may have an adverse effect on global supply chains which could adversely impact our business and results of operations. Additionally, our management has limited experience creating or overseeing foreign operations generally, and the ongoing administration and operation of our PRC facility may require substantial amounts of time and attention by our management team, particularly if we encounter operational, legal or cultural difficulties or disruptions at our PRC facility.

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To date, the majority of our net product sales have been denominated in U.S. dollars. In the future, however, some of our net product sales may be denominated in RMB. The Chinese government controls the procedures by which RMB is converted into other currencies, which generally requires government consent. As a result, RMB may not be freely convertible into other currencies at all times. If the Chinese government institutes changes in currency conversion procedures or imposes additional restrictions on currency conversion, our operations and our operating results could be negatively impacted. In addition, Chinese law imposes restrictions on the movement of funds outside of the PRC. If we need or decide to repatriate funds from our Chinese operations, we would be required to comply with the procedures and regulations of applicable Chinese law, and any failure to so comply could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition. Further, if we are able to repatriate funds from our Chinese operations, these funds would be subject to U.S. taxes. In addition, fluctuations in the exchange rate between RMB and U.S. dollars may adversely affect our expenses, the value of our assets and liabilities and the comparability of our period-to-period results.

Our international operations and sales are subject to a number of additional risks, including, among others, timing and availability of export licenses; difficulties in accounts receivable collections; difficulties managing distributors; lack of a significant local sales presence in a number of markets; difficulties obtaining government approvals; compliance with anti-bribery, data protection and other applicable U.S. and foreign laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-bribery laws in the non-U.S. jurisdictions in which we operate, as well as a wide variety of other complex foreign laws, regulations and treaties; and potentially adverse tax consequences. In addition, the United States or foreign countries may implement quotas, duties, tariffs, taxes or other charges or restrictions on the importation or exportation of our products or the component products we resell, which could lead to a reduction in sales and profitability in that country. The implementation of tariffs by the United States on goods manufactured in other countries, including PRC, could cause the costs of our products to increase, which could significantly impair the gross margin we receive and thereby harm our operating results significantly.

In addition, international turmoil and the threat of future terrorist attacks have contributed to an uncertain political and economic climate, both in the United States and globally, and have negatively impacted the worldwide economy. The economies of the PRC and other countries in which we make sales have been volatile in recent years, resulting in significant fluctuations in local currencies and other instabilities. These conditions could continue or worsen, which could adversely affect our foreign operations and our performance. The occurrence of any of these risks related to our international operations, including our manufacturing facility in the PRC and our international sales, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects for growth.

Our failure to comply with environmental and other applicable laws and regulations could subject us to significant fines and liabilities or cause us to incur significant costs.

We are subject to various and frequently changing U.S. federal, state and local and foreign laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, including laws governing the discharge of pollutants into the air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes and the clean-up of contaminated sites. In particular, some of our manufacturing processes may require us to handle and dispose of hazardous materials from time to time. For example, in the past our manufacturing operations have used lead-based solder in the assembly of our products. Today, we use lead-free soldering technologies in our manufacturing processes, as this is required for products entering the European Union. We could incur substantial costs, including clean-up costs, civil or criminal fines or sanctions and third-party claims for property damage or personal injury, as a result of violations of or noncompliance with these and other environmental laws and regulations. Although we have not incurred significant costs to date to comply with these laws and regulations, new laws or changes to current laws and regulations to make them more stringent could require us to incur significant costs to remain in compliance.

We also may be subject to a variety of laws and regulations relating to other matters, including workplace health and safety, labor and employment, foreign business practices (including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and applicable foreign anti-bribery laws), data protection, public reporting and taxation, among others. It is difficult and costly to manage the requirements of every authority having jurisdiction over our various activities and to comply with their varying standards. Additionally, any changes to existing regulations or adoption of new regulations may result in significant additional expense to us or our customers. Further, our failure to comply with any applicable laws and regulations may result in a variety of administrative, civil and criminal enforcement measures, including monetary

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penalties or imposition of sanctions or other corrective requirements, any of which could materially adversely affect our reputation and our business.

Regulations related to “conflict minerals” may cause us to incur additional expenses and could limit the supply and increase the cost of certain metals used in manufacturing our products.

The U.S. Congress has enacted laws, and the SEC has adopted rules, requiring disclosure of specified minerals, known as conflict minerals, that are necessary to the functionality or production of products manufactured or contracted to be manufactured by public companies. These laws and rules require companies to verify and disclose whether or not such minerals, as used in a company’s products or their manufacture, originate from the Democratic Republic of Congo or an adjoining country. Because our products contain certain conflict minerals and we or our manufacturers use these conflict minerals in the manufacture of our products, we are required to comply with these laws and disclosure rules. To comply, we are required to conduct a reasonable country of origin inquiry each year and, depending on the results of that inquiry, we may be required to exercise due diligence on the source and chain of custody of conflict minerals contained in or used to manufacture our products. Such due diligence must conform to a nationally or internationally recognized due diligence framework. We are also required to file a disclosure report with the SEC each year relating to our conflict mineral use.

The due diligence activities required to determine the source and chain of custody of minerals contained in our products or used in their manufacture are time-consuming and may result in significant costs. Due to the size and complexity of our supply chain, we face significant challenges verifying the origins of the minerals used in our products or their manufacture. Further, these rules could affect the availability in sufficient quantities and at competitive prices of certain minerals used in our products and their manufacture, which could result in increased material and component costs and additional costs associated with potential changes to our products, processes or sources of supply. Additionally, if we are unable to sufficiently verify the origin of the minerals used in our products through the due diligence measures we implement, we may not be able to satisfy customer preferences or requirements regarding the use of conflict minerals in the products they purchase, which could place us at a competitive disadvantage.

We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate the material weakness, or if we identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect our business.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. In performing their audit of our internal control over financial reporting as required by Section 404 and the related rules and regulations of the SEC, our independent registered public accounting firm concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was ineffective as of December 30, 2023 due to one material weakness. The identified material weakness, as of December 30, 2023, relates to the lack of an independent board and audit committee and ineffective risk assessment and monitoring controls.

While the control deficiency identified did not result in any identified misstatements, a reasonable possibility exists that a material misstatement to the annual or interim condensed consolidated financial statements and disclosures will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

In an effort to address the identified material weakness and enhance our internal controls, our finance and accounting personnel are continuing to follow all of the same procedures that they undertook in preparation for independent audit committee meetings on a quarterly and annual basis. Our Chief Executive Officer and sole director will oversee these processes and review materials prepared by the finance and accounting staff as well as our independent registered public accounting firm on a quarterly and annual basis. If our measures are insufficient to address the material weakness, or if additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting occur in the future, we may not be able to timely or accurately report our results of operations or maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures. If we are unable to report financial information timely or accurately, or to maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures, we could be required to restate our financial

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statements and be subject to, among other things, regulatory or enforcement actions, securities litigation, limitations on our ability to access capital markets, debt rating agency downgrades or rating withdrawals, or loss in confidence of our investors, any one of which could adversely affect the valuation of our common stock and our business prospects. We can give no assurance that the measures we have taken and plan to take in the future will remediate the material weakness identified or that any additional material weaknesses will not arise in the future due to a failure to implement and maintain adequate internal control over financial reporting.

We are required to comply with certain provisions of Section 404 that place significant demands on our resources, and the transition to the higher reporting and control standards that applies to us as a “large accelerated filer” may cause management distraction and increased costs.

Section 404 require us to evaluate our internal control over financial reporting and require management to report on the effectiveness of this internal control as of the end of each fiscal year.

Our Section 404 evaluations confirmed that enhancements, modifications and changes to our internal control over financial reporting are necessary and desirable. Implementing changes to comply with Section 404 may divert the attention of management, involve significant time and costs and could negatively impact our financial reporting functions during the transition, any of which could have a material negative effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property and Litigation

We may be unsuccessful in monetizing our intellectual property portfolio.

We dedicate substantial resources to developing technology innovations we believe are critical to our business. We intend to pursue monetization avenues for our intellectual property portfolio, potentially including licensing, royalty or other revenue-producing arrangements. However, other than monies received from SK hynix, we have not generated any such revenue stream from our intellectual property to date, and we may never be successful in achieving this objective.

Although we may pursue agreements with third parties to commercially license certain of our products and/or technologies, we may never successfully enter into any such agreement. Further, the terms of any such agreements we may reach with third parties are uncertain and may not provide sufficient royalty or other revenues to us to justify our costs of developing and maintaining the related intellectual property or may otherwise include terms that are not favorable to us. Additionally, the pursuit of licensing arrangements would require by its nature that we relinquish certain of our rights to our technologies and intellectual property that we license to third parties, which could limit our ability to base our own products on such technologies or could reduce the economic value we receive from such technologies and intellectual property. Additionally, the establishment of arrangements to monetize our intellectual property may be more difficult or costly than expected, may require additional personnel and investments and may be a significant distraction for management.

Our ability to establish licensing, royalty, or similar revenues, and maintain or increase any such revenues we are able to establish, depends on a variety of factors, including, among others, the novelty, utility, performance, quality, breadth, depth and overall perceived value of our intellectual property portfolio, all as compared to that of our competitors, as well as our sales and marketing capabilities. Even if we are able to secure these revenues, they may be negatively affected by factors that are entirely or partially outside our control, including reductions in our customers’ sales prices, sales volumes and the general state of their business, as well as the terms of the license arrangements.

We maintain a system of controls over our intellectual property, including U.S. and foreign patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, licensing arrangements, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements with employees, consultants, and vendors, and a general system of internal controls. Despite our system of controls over our intellectual property, it may be possible for our current or future competitors to obtain, copy, use, or disclose, illegally or otherwise, our product and process technology or other proprietary information. The laws of some foreign countries may not protect

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our intellectual property to the same degree as U.S. laws, and our confidentiality, non-disclosure, and non-compete agreements may be unenforceable or difficult and costly to enforce in foreign countries.

Additionally, our ability to maintain and develop intellectual property is dependent upon our ability to attract, develop, and retain highly skilled employees. If our competitors or future entrants into our industry are successful in hiring our employees, they may directly benefit from the knowledge these employees gained while they were under our employment, and this may also negatively impact our ability to maintain and develop intellectual property.

If we are not successful in monetizing our intellectual property portfolio, protecting our intellectual property, or retaining key employees, we may never recoup our investments of time, capital and other resources in the development, maintenance, defense and enforcement of this portfolio, which could materially harm our financial condition and prospects.

If our proprietary rights are not protected, our customers or our competitors might gain access to our proprietary designs, processes and technologies, which could adversely affect our operating results.

We rely on a combination of patent protection, trade secret laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We have submitted a number of patent applications regarding our proprietary processes and technology, many of which have resulted in issued patents. For our pending patent applications, it is uncertain when or if any of the claims in these applications will be allowed or result in issued patents, in which case the technologies or processes sought to be patented would remain unprotected from use by third parties. In addition, although we intend to continue filing patent applications with respect to new processes and technologies we develop, patent protection may not be available for some of these processes or technologies. Further, even if we are successful in obtaining patent protection, these protections could be limited in scope by the USPTO, a court or applicable foreign authorities or challenged by third parties by way of review or reexamination proceedings and subsequently invalidated, which would reduce the protections these patents are able to provide. Moreover, patent protection is limited as to duration and all of our issued patents will eventually expire, at which time the previously protected technologies would become widely available for use by third parties, including our competitors.

Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights, these efforts may not:

prevent challenges to or the invalidation or circumvention of our intellectual property rights;
keep our competitors or other third parties from independently developing similar products or technologies, duplicating, reverse engineering or otherwise using our products or technologies without our authorization or designing around any patents that may be issued to us;
prevent disputes with third parties regarding ownership of our intellectual property rights;
prevent disclosure of our trade secrets and know-how to third parties or into the public domain;
result in valid patents, including international patents, from any of our pending or future applications; or
otherwise adequately protect our intellectual property rights.

Moreover, monitoring for any unauthorized use of our technologies is costly, time-consuming and difficult. This is particularly true in foreign countries, such as the PRC, where we have established a manufacturing facility and where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as applicable U.S. laws.

If some or all of the claims in our patent applications are not allowed, if any of our issued patents or other intellectual property protections are limited, invalidated or circumvented by third parties, or if we are not able to obtain extensions of existing patents upon their expiration or issuance of new patents to maintain protections provided by expiring patents, we could face increased competition for our products and technologies and be unable to execute on our strategy of monetizing our intellectual property. Any of these outcomes could significantly harm our business, operating results and prospects.

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