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]

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended April 1, 2023

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _____ to _____

Commission file number: 001-33170

Graphic

NETLIST, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

95-4812784

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

111 Academy, Suite 100

Irvine, California

92617

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(949) 435-0025

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes    No 

As of May 4, 2023, there were 240,590,229 outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock.

PART I. — FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.

Financial Statements

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(In thousands, except par value)

April 1,

December 31,

    

2023

    

2022

(unaudited)

ASSETS

Current Assets:

Cash and cash equivalents

$

34,470

$

25,011

Restricted cash

2,100

18,600

Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $95 (2023) and $137 (2022)

5,942

8,242

Inventories

8,959

10,686

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

1,045

1,308

Total current assets

52,516

63,847

Property and equipment, net

1,039

1,138

Operating lease right-of-use assets

1,877

2,043

Other assets

297

295

Total assets

$

55,729

$

67,323

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY

Current Liabilities:

Accounts payable

$

26,370

$

28,468

Revolving line of credit

4,935

Accrued payroll and related liabilities

1,272

1,588

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

2,623

2,635

Long-term debt due within one year

301

447

Total current liabilities

30,566

38,073

Operating lease liabilities

1,615

1,744

Other liabilities

217

270

Total liabilities

32,398

40,087

Commitments and contingencies

Stockholders' equity:

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value—10,000 shares authorized: Series A preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 1,000 shares authorized; none issued and outstanding

Common stock, $0.001 par value—450,000 shares authorized; 238,570 (2023) and 232,557 (2022) shares issued and outstanding

239

233

Additional paid-in capital

262,305

250,428

Accumulated deficit

(239,213)

(223,425)

Total stockholders' equity

23,331

27,236

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity

$

55,729

$

67,323

See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

3

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations (Unaudited)

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

    

2023

    

2022

Net product sales

$

9,021

$

50,200

Cost of sales

8,461

46,837

Gross profit

560

3,363

Operating expenses:

Research and development

2,301

2,457

Intellectual property legal fees

11,070

2,826

Selling, general and administrative

3,030

3,938

Total operating expenses

16,401

9,221

Operating loss

(15,841)

(5,858)

Other income (expense), net:

Interest income (expense), net

56

(11)

Other expense, net

(3)

(2)

Total other income (expense), net

53

(13)

Loss before provision for income taxes

(15,788)

(5,871)

Provision for income taxes

1

Net loss

$

(15,788)

$

(5,872)

Loss per share:

Basic and diluted

$

(0.07)

$

(0.03)

Weighted-average common shares outstanding:

Basic and diluted

235,121

230,546

See accompanying Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Statements.

4

B

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders Equity (Unaudited)

(In thousands)

Additional

Total

Common Stock

Paid-in

Accumulated

Stockholders'

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Deficit

    

Equity

Balance, December 31, 2022

232,557

$

233

$

250,428

$

(223,425)

$

27,236

Net loss

(15,788)

(15,788)

Issuance of common stock, net

4,920

5

10,537

10,542

Exercise of stock options

381

264

264

Stock-based compensation

1,077

1,077

Restricted stock units vested and distributed

712

1

(1)

Balance, April 1, 2023

238,570

$

239

$

262,305

$

(239,213)

$

23,331

Additional

Total

Common Stock

Paid-in

Accumulated

Stockholders'

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Deficit

    

Equity

Balance, January 1, 2022

230,113

$

231

$

243,866

$

(190,055)

$

54,042

Net loss

(5,872)

(5,872)

Issuance of common stock, net

303

1,767

1,767

Exercise of stock options

197

138

138

Stock-based compensation

682

682

Restricted stock units vested and distributed

533

1

(1)

Tax withholdings related to net share settlements of equity awards

(117)

(591)

(591)

Balance, April 2, 2022

231,029

$

232

$

245,861

$

(195,927)

$

50,166

See accompanying Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Statements.

5

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)

(In thousands)

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

    

2023

    

2022

Cash flows from operating activities:

Net loss

$

(15,788)

$

(5,872)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:

Depreciation and amortization

99

81

Non-cash lease expense

166

167

Stock-based compensation

1,077

682

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

Accounts receivable

2,300

6,950

Inventories

1,727

(3,833)

Prepaid expenses and other assets

261

(34)

Accounts payable

(2,098)

3,076

Accrued payroll and related liabilities

(316)

37

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

(142)

(37)

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

(12,714)

1,217

Cash flows from investing activities:

Acquisition of property and equipment

(221)

Net cash used in investing activities

(221)

Cash flows from financing activities:

Net repayments under line of credit

(4,935)

(2,268)

Principal repayments under finance lease

(52)

(5)

Payments on notes payable

(146)

(186)

Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net

10,542

1,767

Proceeds from exercise of stock options

264

138

Payments for taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards

(591)

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

5,673

(1,145)

Net change in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

(7,041)

(149)

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period

43,611

58,479

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

$

36,570

$

58,330

Reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period:

Cash and cash equivalents

$

34,470

$

37,530

Restricted cash

2,100

20,800

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

$

36,570

$

58,330

See accompanying Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Statements.

6

NETLIST, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

Note 1—Description of Business

Netlist, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries (collectively the “Company”, “Netlist”, “we”, “us”, or “our”) provides high-performance computer storage and memory solutions to enterprise customers in diverse industries. Our non-volatile memory express solid-state drives (“NVMe SSDs”) in various capacities and form factors, and our line of custom and specialty memory products bring industry-leading performance to server and storage appliance customers and cloud service providers. We license our portfolio of intellectual property, including patents relating to storage memory systems and subsystems, to companies that implement our technology.

Note 2—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the condensed consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto as of and for the year ended December 31, 2022, included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 28, 2023 (the “2022 Annual Report”).

In the opinion of management, all adjustments for the fair presentation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements have been made. The adjustments are of a normal recurring nature except as otherwise noted. The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for other periods or the full fiscal year. The Company has evaluated events occurring subsequent to April 1, 2023 through the filing date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and concluded that there were no events that required recognition and disclosures other than those discussed elsewhere in the notes hereto.

Principles of Consolidation

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Netlist, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Fiscal Year

The Company’s fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period that ends on the Saturday nearest to December 31. The Company’s fiscal year 2023 will include 52 weeks and ends on December 30, 2023. Each quarter of fiscal year 2023 will be comprised of 13 weeks. Unless otherwise stated, references to particular years, quarters, months and periods refer to the Company’s fiscal years ended in January and the associated quarters, months and periods of those fiscal years.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported. Actual results may differ materially from those estimates.

7

Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance

Currently, there are no Accounting Standards Updates that the Company is required to adopt that are likely to have a material effect on its financial statements that have not been previously discussed in the Company's 2022 Annual Report.

Note 3—Supplemental Financial Information

Inventories

Inventories consisted of the following (in thousands):

April 1,

December 31,

    

2023

    

2022

Raw materials

$

7,574

$

8,223

Work in process

48

185

Finished goods

1,337

2,278

$

8,959

$

10,686

Loss Per Share

The following table shows the computation of basic and diluted loss per share of common stock (in thousands, except per share data):

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

2023

    

2022

Numerator: Net loss

$

(15,788)

$

(5,872)

Denominator: Weighted-average basic shares outstanding - basic and diluted

235,121

230,546

Net loss per share - basic and diluted

$

(0.07)

$

(0.03)

The table below shows potentially dilutive weighted average common share equivalents, consisting of shares issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants using the treasury stock method, shares issuable upon conversion feature of a convertible note using the “if-converted” method, and the shares vesting of issuable upon the restricted stock units (“RSUs”). These potential weighted average common share equivalents have been excluded from the diluted net loss per share calculations above as their effect would be anti-dilutive (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

2023

    

2022

Weighted average common share equivalents

3,193

6,369

Disaggregation of Net Sales

The following table shows disaggregated net sales by major source (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

    

2023

2022

Resales of third-party products

$

6,909

$

45,585

Sale of the Company's modular memory subsystems

2,112

4,615

Total net sales

$

9,021

$

50,200

8

Major Customers and Products

The Company’s net product sales have historically been concentrated in a small number of customers. The following table sets forth the percentage of net product sales made to customers that each comprise 10% or more of total product sales:

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

2023

2022

Customer A

49%

53%

Customer B

12%

*

*

Less than 10% of net sales during the period.

As of April 1, 2023, two customers represented approximately 55% and 15% of aggregated gross accounts receivables, respectively. As of December 31, 2022, one customer represented approximately 69% of aggregate gross accounts receivables. The loss of a major customer or a reduction in sales to or difficulties collecting payments from these customers could significantly reduce the Company’s net sales and adversely affect its operating results. The Company mitigates risks associated with foreign and domestic receivables by purchasing comprehensive credit insurance.

The Company resells certain component products to end-customers that are not reached in the distribution models of the component manufacturers, including storage customers, appliance customers, system builders and cloud and datacenter customers. For the three months ended April 1, 2023 and April 2, 2022, resales of these products represented approximately 77% and 91% of net product sales, respectively.

Note 4—Credit Agreement

On October 31, 2009, the Company and Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”) entered into a credit agreement, as the same may from time to time be amended, modified, supplemented or restated, (the “SVB Credit Agreement”), which provided for a revolving line of credit up to $10.0 million, as amended. The SVB Credit Agreement was most recently amended on April 29, 2022 to add 50% of eligible inventory to the previous borrowing base limited to 85% of eligible accounts receivable, subject to certain adjustments. Borrowings accrued interest on advance at a per annum rate equal to the greater of 0.75% above the Wall Street Journal prime rate (“Prime Rate”) or 4.25%. The maturity date was April 28, 2023, as amended.     

The SVB Credit Agreement required letters of credit to be secured by cash, which was classified as restricted cash in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. As of April 1, 2023 and December 31, 2022, (i) outstanding letters of credit were $2.1 million and $18.6 million, respectively, (ii) outstanding borrowings were $0 and $4.9 million, respectively, and (iii) availability under the revolving line of credit was $3.3 million and $0, respectively.

On April 28, 2023, the SVB Credit Agreement terminated in accordance with its terms. In connection with the termination of the SVB Credit Agreement, on April 28, 2023, all outstanding obligations for principal, interest, and fees under the SVB Credit Agreement were paid off in full and all liens securing such obligations were released.

9

Note 5—Debt

The Company’s debt consisted of the following (in thousands):

April 1,

December 31,

    

2023

    

2022

Notes payable

$

301

$

447

Less: amounts due within one year

(301)

(447)

Long-term debt

$

$

Insurance Policy Finance Agreement

As of April 1, 2023 and December 31, 2022, we had $0.3 million and $0.4 million, respectively, in short-term notes payable for the financing of insurance policies. On January 4, 2023, we entered into a short-term note payable for $0.4 million bearing interest at 7.2% to finance insurance policies. Principal and interest payments on this note began January 15, 2023 and are made evenly based on a straight line amortization over a 9-month period.

Note 6—Leases

The Company has operating and finance leases primarily associated with office and manufacturing facilities and certain equipment. The determination of which discount rate to use when measuring the lease obligation was deemed a significant judgment.

Lease cost and supplemental condensed consolidated cash flow information related to operating and finance leases were as follows (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

    

2023

2022

Lease cost:

Operating lease cost

$

195

$

198

Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:

Operating cash flows from operating leases

$

169

$

149

Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for lease obligations:

Operating leases

$

$

555

For the three months ended April 1, 2023, and April 2, 2022, finance lease costs and cash flows from finance leases were immaterial.

10

Supplemental condensed consolidated balance sheet information related to leases was as follows (in thousands):

April 1,

December 31,

2023

2022

Operating Leases

Operating lease right-of-use assets

$

1,877

$

2,043

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

$

440

$

451

Operating lease liabilities

1,615

1,744

Total operating lease liabilities

$

2,055

$

2,195

Finance Leases

Property and equipment, at cost

$

488

$

488

Accumulated depreciation

(146)

(121)

Property and equipment, net

$

342

$

367

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

$

214

$

211

Other liabilities

42

96

Total finance lease liabilities

$

256

$

307

The following table includes supplemental information:

April 1,

December 31,

2023

2022

Weighted Average Remaining Lease Term (in years)

Operating leases

3.7

3.9

Finance leases

1.3

1.5

Weighted Average Discount Rate

Operating leases

5.5%

5.5%

Finance leases

4.4%

4.4%

Maturities of lease liabilities as of April 1, 2023, were as follows (in thousands):

Operating

Finance

Fiscal Year

Leases

Leases

2023 (remainder of the year)

$

390

$

165

2024

613

91

2025

624

5

2026

639

3

2027

23

Total lease payments

2,289

264

Less: imputed interest

(234)

(8)

Total

$

2,055

$

256

Note 7Commitments and Contingencies

Contingent Legal Expenses

We may retain the services of law firms that specialize in patent licensing and enforcement and patent law in connection with our licensing and enforcement activities. These law firms may be retained on a contingent fee basis whereby such law firms are paid on a scaled percentage of any negotiated fee, settlements or judgments awarded based on how and when the fees, settlements or judgments are obtained.

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Litigation and Patent Reexaminations

We own numerous patents and continue to seek to grow and strengthen our patent portfolio, which covers various aspects of our innovations and includes various claim scopes. We plan to pursue avenues to monetize our intellectual property portfolio, in which we would generate revenue by selling or licensing our technology, and we intend to vigorously enforce our patent rights against alleged infringers of such rights. We dedicate substantial resources to protecting and enforcing our intellectual property rights, including with patent infringement proceedings we file against third parties and defense of our patents against challenges made by way of reexamination and review proceedings at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) and Patent Trial and Appeal Board (“PTAB” or the “Board”). We expect these activities to continue for the foreseeable future, with no guarantee that any ongoing or future patent protection or litigation activities will be successful, or that we will be able to monetize our intellectual property portfolio.

Any litigation, regardless of its outcome, is inherently uncertain, involves a significant dedication of resources, including time and capital, and diverts management’s attention from our other activities. As a result, any current or future claims, allegations, or challenges by or against third parties, whether eventually decided in our favor or settled, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, the outcome of pending or future litigation and/or related patent reviews and reexaminations, as well as any delay in their resolution, could affect our ability to continue to sell our products, protect against competition in the current and expected markets for our products or license or otherwise monetize our intellectual property rights in the future.

Google Litigations

On December 4, 2009, Netlist filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Google, Inc. (“Google”) in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (the “NDCA”), seeking damages and injunctive relief based on Google’s alleged infringement of our U.S. Patent No. 7,619,912 (the “‘912 Patent”). The current judge assigned to the case, Chief Judge Seeborg, entered an order via stipulation on October 17, 2022 staying the NDCA Google case until the resolution of a pending case filed by Netlist, Inc. against Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas (“EDTX”) (Netlist, Inc. v. Samsung Elecs. Co., Ltd. et al., Case No. 2:22-cv-00293-JRG).

On July 26, 2022, Netlist filed patent infringement claims against Google Cloud EMEA Limited, Google Germany GmbH, Redtec Computing GmbH, and Google, seeking damages based on those defendants’ infringement of European Patents EP 2,454,735 (“EP735”) and EP 3,404,660 (“EP660”), which both generally relate to load reduced dual in line memory modules (“LRDIMM”) technologies. As of the reporting date, Google has submitted its statements of defense. The date for oral hearings are currently scheduled for November 2023.

On October 15, 2021, Samsung initiated a declaratory judgement action against Netlist in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware (“DDE”) (Samsung Elecs. Co., Ltd., et. al. v. Netlist, Inc., Case No. 1:21-cv-01453-RGA). On September 12, 2022, Netlist amended its Counterclaims to include counterclaims against Google, LLC and Alphabet, Inc. On November 15, 2022, Google, LLC and Alphabet, Inc. responded to Netlist’s Counterclaims by filing a Motion to Dismiss or alternatively to sever and stay the counterclaims. As of the reporting date, the Court has set the oral argument date for Google’s Motion to Dismiss or alternatively, Sever and Stay and Dismiss Willfulness and Indirect Infringement Allegations as May 22, 2023 at 2:00 P.M. ET before Judge Jennifer L. Hall. Further, the Court set the Claim Construction hearing for October 20, 2023, and the beginning of the Jury Trial on February 3, 2025.

Micron Litigations

On April 28, 2021, Netlist filed a complaint for patent infringement against Micron Technology, Inc. (“Micron”) in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas, Waco Division (“WDTX”) (Case No. 6:21-cv00431 & Case No. 6:21-cv-00430). These proceedings are based on the alleged infringement by Micron’s LRDIMM and Micron’s non-volatile dual in line memory modules (“NVDIMM”) enterprise memory modules under four U.S. patents – U.S. Patent Nos. 10,489,314 (the “‘314 Patent”), 9,824,035 (the “‘035 Patent”), 10,268,608 (the “‘608 Patent”), and 8,301,833 (the “‘833 Patent”). The case has been assigned to Hon. Judge Lee Yeakel, and the parties completed briefing on their claim construction arguments. On May 11, 2022, Judge Yeakel entered a stay of the case pending the

12

resolution of Micron’s requested Inter Partes Review (“IPR”) proceedings against the four patents asserted by Netlist in this case (the ‘833, ‘035, ‘608, and ‘314 Patents). As of the reporting date, the matter remains stayed pending the outcome of the related IPR proceedings.

As noted above, Micron filed requests to bring IPR proceedings against Netlist’s ‘314, ‘035, ‘608, and ‘833 Patents. As of the reporting date, the PTAB granted Micron’s request for the ‘035, ‘833, and ‘314 Patents, but denied its request for the ‘608 Patent. The PTAB further denied Micron’s request for rehearing on the ‘608 Patent’s institution denial. As of the reporting date, the IPR trials under the ‘035, ‘833, and ‘314 Patents are proceeding following Netlist’s timely submissions of its related Patent Owner Responses. Oral arguments were presented for the ‘035 Patent IPR on April 19, 2023. Oral arguments for the ‘833 and ‘314 Patents are set for June and August 2023, respectively.

On March 31, 2022, Netlist filed patent infringement claims against Micron in Germany (“Micron Dusseldorf Case”), seeking damages based on their infringement of EP735 and EP660. On June 24, 2022, Netlist requested injunctive relief. Micron initiated a nullity proceeding against the asserted EP patents in this action, making Netlist’s response to the same as November 19, 2022. As of the reporting date, primary briefing in the Micron Dusseldorf Case has concluded, while the German Federal Patent Court has entered a preliminary opinion on the EP735 and EP660 invalidity proceedings. Given the entry of the preliminary opinions, the Judge in the Micron Dusseldorf infringement actions has reset the oral hearing in those cases to 2024.

On June 10, 2022, Netlist filed a complaint for patent infringement against Micron in the EDTX, Marshall Division (Case No. 2:22-cv-00203-JRG-RSP). These proceedings are based on the alleged infringement by Micron for the sale of its LRDIMMs, its memory modules utilizing on-board power management modules (“PMIC”), and its high bandwidth memory (“HBM”) components, under six U.S. Netlist patents: the ‘060, ‘160, ‘506, ‘339, ‘918, and ‘054 Patents. As of the reporting date, the case stands ready to proceed with a claim construction hearing set for July 19, 2023, and trial beginning on January 22, 2024.

On August 1, 2022, Netlist filed a complaint for patent infringement against Micron in the EDTX (Case No. 2:22-cv-00294) under the ‘912 Patent, for Micron’s alleged infringement by the sale of its LRDIMMs and RDIMMs. On August 15, 2022, Netlist filed its first amended complaint, further addressing Micron’s infringement of the ‘215 and ‘417 Patents. On October 21, 2022, Chief Judge Gilstrap ordered that this Micron action and a parallel action by Netlist against Samsung on the same patents (Case No. 2:22-cv-00293-JRG) be consolidated and set for a joint scheduling conference on November 17, 2022, further instructing that the Samsung action be considered the “LEAD CASE” and that any further filings from either action be submitted in that case for all pretrial matters. As of the reporting date, the consolidated case stands ready to proceed with a claim construction hearing set for October 5, 2023, and trial beginning on April 15, 2024.

On November 18, 2022, Micron filed IPR requests contesting the validity of the ‘912, ‘339, and ‘506 Patents, along with motions requesting joinder to the pending Samsung IPRs related to the same patents (see below). As of the reporting date, the ‘912 and ‘339 matters have not been joined with the corresponding Samsung IPRs, while the ‘506 proceeding has been joined with the analogous prior-filed Samsung IPR proceeding on the same patent. The Board’s deadline to institute trials on the ‘912 and ‘339 Micron IPRs is June 9, 2023.

On January 6, 2023, Micron filed IPR requests contesting the validity of the ‘918 and ‘054 Patents, along with motions requesting joinder to the pending Samsung IPRs related to the same patents (see below). As of the reporting date, the matters have not been joined with the corresponding Samsung IPRs. The Board’s deadline to institute trials on these Micron IPRs is July 20, 2023.

Samsung Litigations

On May 28, 2020, Netlist filed a complaint against Samsung in the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California for Samsung’s breach of the parties’ Joint Development and License Agreement (“JDLA”). On July 22, 2020, Netlist amended its complaint to seek a declaratory judgment that it properly terminated the JDLA in light of Samsung’s material breaches. On October 14, 2021, the Court entered summary judgment in Netlist’s favor and confirmed Netlist properly terminated the JDLA as of July 15, 2020. On February 15, 2022, the Court entered a final judgment in favor of

13

Netlist on each of its three claims and confirmed conclusively that the licenses granted by Netlist under the JDLA were terminated. On February 25, 2022, Samsung filed a Notice of Appeal, and the Federal Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals issued a Time Schedule Order on February 28, 2022. On August 4, 2022, Netlist filed a cross-appeal seeking the Appeal Court’s reconsideration of the District Court’s finding that the fees Netlist paid to PwC were consequential damages, rather than recoverable general damages. The parties have completed briefing on the appeal and cross-appeal. As of the reporting date, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals set a date for oral argument on June 9, 2023 at 9:30 A.M. PT, in Courtroom 1 of the Court’s Pasadena, CA Courthouse.

On October 15, 2021, Samsung initiated a declaratory judgement action against Netlist in the DDE (Samsung Elecs. Co., Ltd., et. al. v. Netlist, Inc., Case No. 1:21-cv-01453-RGA), where it requested in relevant part that the DDE declare that Samsung does not infringe Netlist’s U.S. Patent Nos. 9,858,218 (the “‘218 Patent”), 10,217,523 (the “‘523 Patent”), 10,474,595 (the “‘595 Patent”), and the ‘506, ‘339, ‘912 and ‘918 Patents, while later seeking leave to add the ‘054 Patent (issued Jan. 25, 2022) to its action. On August 1, 2022, Hon. Judge Andrews dismissed all of Samsung’s counts related to Netlist’s ‘912, ‘506, ‘339, and ‘918 Patents, and denied Samsung’s request to bring its ‘054 claims in Delaware. On September 12, 2022, Netlist amended its Counterclaims to include counterclaims tying Google, LLC and Alphabet, Inc. to the action. On November 15, 2022, Google, LLC and Alphabet, Inc. responded to Netlist’s Counterclaims by filing a Motion to Dismiss or alternatively to Sever and Stay the counterclaims. As of the reporting date, the Court has set the oral argument date for Google’s Motion to Dismiss or alternatively, Sever and Stay and Dismiss Willfulness and Indirect Infringement Allegations as May 22, 2023 at 2:00 P.M. ET before Judge Jennifer L. Hall. Further, the Court set the Claim Construction hearing for October 20, 2023, and the beginning of the Jury Trial on February 3, 2025.

On November 19, 2021, Samsung filed IPR requests contesting the validity of U.S. Patent Nos. 9,858,218 (the “‘218 Patent”), 10,474,595 (the “‘595 Patent”), and 10,217,523 (the “‘523 Patent”). Netlist filed its initial responses to Samsung’s petitions on February 18, 2022, contesting the institution of any IPR on the grounds propounded. As of the reporting date, oral arguments were heard for the ‘523 IPR (February 1, 2023), and the ‘218 Patent and ‘595 Patent IPRs (February 15, 2023). As of the reporting date, the PTAB has issued a final written decision finding all of the claims of the ‘523 Patent valid and patentable, while finding all of the claims of the ‘218 Patent unpatentable. The PTAB has not yet entered its final written decision regarding the ‘595 Patent, which is due May 15, 2023.

On December 20, 2021, Netlist filed a complaint for patent infringement against Samsung, Samsung Semiconductor, Inc., and Samsung Electronics America, Inc. in the EDTX (Case No. 2:21-cv-00463-JRG) under the ‘506, ‘339, and ‘918 Patents. Samsung responded to Netlist’s complaint on April 12, 2022, and Chief Judge Gilstrap ordered a scheduling conference be set. On May 3, 2022, Netlist entered a First Amended Complaint pursuant to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (“FRCP”) Rule 15, adding claims for infringement under three additional patents: the ‘060, ‘160, and ‘054 Patents. On April 14, 2023, the trial began with jury selection and opening statements, and concluded on April 21, 2023 with the entry of the jury’s verdict into the public record. The jury unanimously found that Samsung had willfully infringed Netlist’s ‘339, ‘918, ‘054, ‘060, and ‘160 patents through the sale of their DDR4 LRDIMMs, DDR5 DIMMS, and HBM components, and that none of the patent claims assessed at trial were invalid. Given the infringement, the jury awarded Netlist, Inc. a total of $303 million for Samsung’s infringement. As of the reporting date, post-trial proceedings are being briefed and adjudicated.

On February 17, 2022, Samsung filed an IPR request contesting the validity of only claim 16 within the ‘912 Patent. Samsung then filed two additional IPR requests contesting the validity of the ‘506 and ‘339 Patents. Netlist filed its Patent Owner’s Preliminary Response for the ‘912 and ‘339 Patent IPRs on July 21, 2022, and for the ‘506 Patent IPR on July 28, 2022. On January 19, 2023, the PTAB instituted IPR trials on both the ‘912 and ‘339 Patents. The following day, the PTAB instituted an IPR trial on the ‘506 Patent. On October 19, 2022, the PTAB instituted IPR trials on the ‘912 Patent and ‘339 Patent, while two days later it instituted an IPR trial on the ’506 Patent. On January 5, 2023, USPTO Director Katherine K. Vidal entered an Order in the ‘912 proceeding mandating a sua sponte Director review of the Board’s decision granting institution of the ‘912 Patent, and staying the underlying proceedings in lieu of a supplemental briefing schedule set by the Director herself. On February 3, 2023, Director Vidal entered a decision requiring the assigned Board to reevaluate Netlist’s request for discovery on the admitted relationship between Samsung and Google and ordered that if the Board determines Google is a “Real Party in Interest,” the Board must vacate its institution decision and deny Samsung’s Petition. The Board has collected the mandated follow-on discovery from

14

Samsung and set a supplemental briefing schedule that terminates on May 3, 2023. As of the reporting date, Netlist has timely filed its Patent Owner Responses for the ‘339 and ‘506 Patent IPR proceedings. Substantive briefing is ongoing in these IPRs.

On May 17, 2022, Samsung filed two IPR petitions contesting the validity of Netlist’s ‘918 and ‘054 Patents. On December 6, 2022, the Board instituted an IPR trial for the ‘054 Patent, and then instituted an IPR trial for the ‘918 Patent the next day. On December 9, 2022, the Board set a joint schedule for both IPRs. As of the reporting date, Netlist filed its Patent Owner Response. Substantive briefing is ongoing in these IPRs.

On June 3, 2022, Netlist filed patent infringement lawsuits against Samsung in Dusseldorf, Germany, seeking damages for Samsung’s infringement of Netlist’s Patents EP735 and EP660. The Dusseldorf Court set an Oral Hearing date for September 5, 2023.

On August 1, 2022, Netlist filed a complaint for patent infringement against Samsung, Samsung Semiconductor, Inc., and Samsung Electronics America, Inc. in the EDTX (Case No. 2:22-cv-00293) under the ‘912 Patent, which relates generally to technologies to implement rank multiplication. On August 15, 2022, Netlist filed its first amended complaint here, further addressing Samsung’s infringement of the ‘215 Patent and ‘417 Patent. On October 21, 2022, Chief Judge Gilstrap ordered that this action and a parallel action by Netlist against Micron on the same patents (22-cv-00294-JRG) be consolidated and set for a joint scheduling conference on November 17, 2022, further instructing that this Samsung action be considered the “LEAD CASE” and that any further filings from either action be submitted in therefore all pretrial matters. As of the reporting date, the consolidated case stands ready to proceed with a claim construction hearing set for October 5, 2023, and trial beginning on April 15, 2024.

On August 26, 2022, Samsung filed two IPR petitions contesting the validity of Netlist’s U.S. Patent Nos. 8,787,060 (the “‘060 Patent”) and 9,318,160 (the “‘106 Patent”). On January 19, 2023, Netlist filed its Patent Owner Preliminary Responses in those proceedings. As of the reporting date, the Board instituted trials for both IPRs, setting Netlist’s deadline to files its Patent Owner’s Response on July 5, 2023.

On January 10, 2023, Samsung filed two IPR petitions contesting the validity of the ‘215 and ‘417 Patents. As of the reporting date, the Board has accorded these IPR a filing date of January 10, 2023. As of the reporting date, Netlist filed its Patent Owner Preliminary Responses by the May 9, 2023 deadline.

On April 27, 2023, Samsung filed an IPR petition contesting the validity of the ‘608 Patent. As of the reporting date, the Board has not yet accorded this IPR a filing date.

Other Contingent Obligations

In the ordinary course of our business, we have made certain indemnities, commitments and guarantees pursuant to which we may be required to make payments in relation to certain transactions. These may include, among others: (i) intellectual property indemnities to our customers and licensees in connection with the use, sale and/or license of our products; (ii) indemnities to vendors and service providers pertaining to claims based on our negligence or willful misconduct; (iii) indemnities involving the accuracy of representations and warranties in certain contracts; (iv) indemnities to our directors and officers to the maximum extent permitted under the laws of the State of Delaware; (v) indemnities pertaining to all obligations, demands, claims, and liabilities claimed or asserted by any other party in connection with transactions contemplated by applicable investment or loan documents, as applicable; and (vi) indemnities or other claims related to certain real estate leases, under which we may be required to indemnify property owners for environmental and other liabilities or may face other claims arising from our use of the applicable premises. The duration of these indemnities, commitments and guarantees varies and, in certain cases, may be indefinite. The majority of these indemnities, commitments and guarantees do not provide for any limitation of the maximum potential for future payments we could be obligated to make. Historically, we have not been obligated to make significant payments as a result of these obligations, and no liabilities have been recorded for these indemnities, commitments and guarantees in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.

15

Note 8—Stockholders’ Equity

Serial Preferred Stock

The Company’s authorized capital stock includes 10,000,000 shares of serial preferred stock, with a par value of $0.001 per share. No shares of preferred stock were outstanding as of April 1, 2023 or December 31, 2022.

On April 17, 2017, the Company entered into a rights agreement (as amended from time to time, the “Rights Agreement”) with Computershare Trust Company, N.A., as rights agent. In connection with the adoption of the Rights Agreement and pursuant to its terms, the Company’s board of directors authorized and declared a dividend of one right (each, a “Right”) for each outstanding share of the Company’s common stock to stockholders of record at the close of business on May 18, 2017 (the “Record Date”), and authorized the issuance of one Right for each share of the Company’s common stock issued by the Company (except as otherwise provided in the Rights Agreement) between the Record Date and the Distribution Date (as defined below).

Each Right entitles the registered holder, subject to the terms of the Rights Agreement, to purchase from the Company, when exercisable and subject to adjustment, one unit consisting of one one-thousandth of a share (a “Unit”) of Series A Preferred Stock of the Company (the “Preferred Stock”), at a purchase price of $6.56 per Unit, subject to adjustment. Subject to the provisions of the Rights Agreement, including certain exceptions specified therein, a distribution date for the Rights (the “Distribution Date”) will occur upon the earlier of (i) 10 business days following a public announcement that a person or group of affiliated or associated persons (an “Acquiring Person”) has acquired or otherwise obtained beneficial ownership of 15% or more of the then-outstanding shares of the Company’s common stock, and (ii) 10 business days (or such later date as may be determined by the Company’s board of directors) following the commencement of a tender offer or exchange offer that would result in a person or group becoming an Acquiring Person. The Rights are not exercisable until the Distribution Date and, unless earlier redeemed or exchanged by the Company pursuant to the terms of the Rights Agreement (as amended on April 16, 2018, April 16, 2019 and August 14, 2020) will expire on the close of business on April 17, 2024.

In connection with the adoption of the Rights Agreement, the Company’s board of directors approved a Certificate of Designation of the Series A Preferred Stock (the “Certificate of Designation”) designating 1,000,000 shares of its serial preferred stock as Series A Preferred Stock and setting forth the rights, preferences and limitations of the Preferred Stock. The Company filed the Certificate of Designation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on April 17, 2017.

Common Stock

September 2021 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On September 28, 2021, the Company entered into a purchase agreement (the “September 2021 Purchase Agreement”) with Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC (“Lincoln Park”), pursuant to which the Company has the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $75 million in shares of its common stock subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. Concurrent with the execution of the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, the Company also entered into a registration rights agreement with Lincoln Park relating to the Company’s common stock to be sold to Lincoln Park. As consideration for entering into the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, the Company issued to Lincoln Park 218,750 shares of its common stock as initial commitment shares in a noncash transaction on September 28, 2021 and will issue up to 143,750 additional shares of its common stock as additional commitment shares on a pro rata basis in connection with any additional purchases. The Company will not receive any cash proceeds from the issuance of these additional commitment shares.

Pursuant to the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, on any business day and as often as every other business day over the 36-month term of the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, the Company has the right, from time to time, at its sole discretion and subject to certain conditions, to direct Lincoln Park to purchase up to 750,000 shares of its common stock, provided Lincoln Park’s obligation under any single such purchase will not exceed $4.0 million, unless

16

the Company and Lincoln Park mutually agree to increase the maximum amount of such single regular purchase. If the Company directs Lincoln Park to purchase the maximum number of shares of common stock, it then may sell in a regular purchase, then in addition to such regular purchase, and subject to certain conditions and limitations in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, the Company may direct Lincoln Park to purchase an additional amount of common stock that may not exceed the lesser of (i) 300% of the number of shares purchased pursuant to the corresponding regular purchase or (ii) 30% of the total number of shares of its common stock traded during a specified period on the applicable purchase date as set forth in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. Under certain circumstances and in accordance with the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, the Company may direct Lincoln Park to purchase shares in multiple accelerated purchases on the same trading day.

The Company controls the timing and amount of any sales of its common stock to Lincoln Park. There is no upper limit on the price per share that Lincoln Park must pay for the Company’s common stock under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, but in no event will shares be sold to Lincoln Park on a day the closing price is less than the floor price specified in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. In all instances, the Company may not sell shares of its common stock to Lincoln Park under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement if that would result in Lincoln Park beneficially owning more than 9.99% of its common stock.

The September 2021 Purchase Agreement does not limit the Company’s ability to raise capital from other sources at the Company’s sole discretion, except that, subject to certain exceptions, the Company may not enter into any Variable Rate Transaction (as defined in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, including the issuance of any floating conversion rate or variable priced equity-like securities) during the 36 months after the date of the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. The Company has the right to terminate the September 2021 Purchase Agreement at any time, at no cost to the Company.

During 2022, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 1,050,000 shares of our common stock for a net purchase price of $4.4 million under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. In connection with the purchases, we issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 8,502 shares of our common stock as additional commitment shares in noncash transactions. During the three months ended April 1, 2023, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 4,900,000 shares of our common stock for a net purchase price of $10.5 million under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. In connection with the purchases, we issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 20,209 shares of our common stock as additional commitment shares in noncash transactions.

Subsequently, from April 2, 2023 through May 4, 2023, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 1,950,000 shares of our common stock for a net purchase price of $9.2 million under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. In connection with the purchase, we issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 17,562 shares of our common stock as additional commitment shares in noncash transactions.

Note 9—Stock-Based Awards

As of April 1, 2023, the Company had 960,086 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under its Amended and Restated 2006 Incentive Plan (“Amended 2006 Plan”). Stock options granted under the Amended 2006 Plan generally vest at a rate of at least 25% per year over four years and expire 10 years from the grant date. RSUs granted for employees and consultants generally vest in equal installments annually and fully vest over a four-year term from the grant date.

17

Stock Options

The following table summarizes the activity related to stock options during the three months ended April 1, 2023:

Weighted-

Number of

Average

Shares

Exercise

(in thousands)

    

Price

Outstanding as of December 31, 2022

4,866

$

0.93

Granted

Exercised

(381)

0.69

Expired or forfeited

(119)

1.84

Outstanding as of April 1, 2023

4,366

$

0.92

Restricted Stock Units

The following table summarizes the activity related to RSUs during the three months ended April 1, 2023:

Weighted-

Average

Number of

Grant-Date

Shares

Fair Value

(in thousands)

per Share

Balance nonvested as of December 31, 2022

3,442

$

3.36

Granted

649

2.93

Vested

(712)

1.94

Forfeited

(149)

4.01

Balance nonvested as of April 1, 2023

3,230

$

3.55

Stock-Based Compensation

The following table summarizes the stock-based compensation expense by line item in the condensed consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

2023

2022

Cost of sales

$

18

$

3

Research and development

274

176

Selling, general and administrative

785

503

Total

$

1,077

$

682

As of April 1, 2023, the Company had approximately $9.9 million, net of estimated forfeitures, of unearned stock-based compensation, which it expects to recognize over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.9 years.

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Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) and other parts of this report include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are statements other than historical facts and often address future events or our future performance. Words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “may,” “will,” “might,” “plan,” “predict,” “believe,” “should,” “could” and similar words or expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

Forward-looking statements contained in this MD&A include statements about, among other things: 

our beliefs regarding the market and demand for our products or the component products we resell;
our ability to collect the damages awarded to us by jury verdict in our trial with Samsung;
our ability to develop and launch new products that are attractive to the market and stimulate customer demand for these products;
our plans relating to our intellectual property, including our goals of monetizing, licensing, expanding and defending our patent portfolio;
our expectations and strategies regarding outstanding legal proceedings and patent reexaminations relating to our intellectual property portfolio;
specific and overall impacts of the coronavirus disease (“COVID-19”) pandemic on our financial condition and results of operations;
our expectations with respect to any strategic partnerships or other similar relationships we may pursue;
the competitive landscape of our industry;
general market, economic and political conditions;
our business strategies and objectives;
our expectations regarding our future operations and financial position, including revenues, costs and prospects, and our liquidity and capital resources, including cash flows, sufficiency of cash resources, efforts to reduce expenses and the potential for future financings;
our ability to remediate any material weakness, maintain effective internal control over financial reporting; and
the impact of the above factors and other future events on the market price and trading volume of our common stock.

All forward-looking statements reflect management’s present assumptions, expectations and beliefs regarding future events and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by any forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include those described under “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A of this report. In light of these risks and uncertainties, our forward-looking statements should not be relied on as predictions of future events. Additionally, many of these risks and uncertainties are currently elevated by and may or will continue to be elevated by and may or will continue to be elevated by the COVID-19 pandemic. All forward-looking statements reflect our assumptions, expectations and beliefs only as of the date they are made, and except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements for any reason.

The following MD&A should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in Part I, Item 1 of this report, as well as our Annual Report on Form 10-K for our fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the SEC. All information presented herein is based on our fiscal calendar, and references to particular years, quarters, months or periods refer to our fiscal years ended in January or December and the associated quarters, months and periods of those fiscal years. Each of the terms the “Company,” “Netlist,” “we,” “us,” or “our” as used herein refers collectively to Netlist, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise stated.

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Overview

Netlist provides high-performance memory solutions to enterprise customers in diverse industries. Our products in various capacities and form factors and our line of custom and specialty memory products bring leading performance to customers in a variety of industries globally and cloud service providers. Netlist licenses its portfolio of intellectual property, including solutions relating to improvements for volatile memory, non-volatile memory, computer storage, hybrid memory, and related subsystems.

During the first quarter of 2023, we recorded net sales of $9.0 million, gross profit of $0.6 million and net loss of $15.8 million. We have historically financed our operations primarily with proceeds from issuances of equity and debt securities and cash receipts from revenues. We have also funded our operations with a revolving line of credit and term loans under a bank credit facility. See “Recent Developments” and “Liquidity and Capital Resources” below for more information.

Recent Developments

Damages Award Against Samsung

On April 21, 2023, we won a $303 million damages award against Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Samsung Semiconductor, Inc., and Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (together “Samsung”) in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. The award resulted from a jury trial that lasted six days, and involved five Netlist patents: U.S. Patent Nos. 10,949,339, 11,016,918, 11,232,054, 8,787,060, and 9,318,160. The products found to infringe these patents were Samsung DDR4 LRDIMMs, DDR5 UDIMMs, DDR5 SODIMMs, and DDR5 RDIMMs, and HBM 2, 2E, and 3 components. As of the reporting date, post-trial proceedings are being adjudicated and a Judgement has not yet been entered. Upon entry of a Judgment, an appeal may be filed before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Should any party file an appeal, that could cause a lengthy delay in our ability to collect a damages award from Samsung, lead to a reduction of the damages award, or lead to a remand or reversal of the jury’s verdict.

Termination of SVB Credit Agreement

On October 31, 2009, we entered into the SVB Credit Agreement, which provided for a revolving line of credit of up to $10.0 million, as amended. The SVB Credit Agreement was most recently amended on April 29, 2022 to add 50% of eligible inventory to the previous borrowing base limited to 85% of eligible accounts receivable, subject to certain adjustments. Borrowings accrued interest on advance at a per annum rate equal to the greater of 0.75% above the Prime Rate or 4.25%. The maturity date was April 28, 2023, as amended.

On April 28, 2023, the SVB Credit Agreement terminated in accordance with its terms. In connection with the termination of the SVB Credit Agreement, on April 28, 2023, all outstanding obligations for principal, interest, and fees under the SVB Credit Agreement were paid in full and all liens securing such obligations were released.

September 2021 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On September 28, 2021, we entered into the September 2021 Purchase Agreement with Lincoln Park, pursuant to which we have the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $75 million in shares of our common stock over the 36-month term of the September 2021 Purchase Agreement subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement.

During the three months ended April 1, 2023, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 4,900,000 shares of our common stock for a net purchase price of $10.5 million under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. In connection with the purchases, we issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 20,209 shares of our common stock as additional commitment shares in noncash transactions.

Subsequently, from April 2, 2023 through May 4, 2023, Lincoln Park purchased an aggregate of 1,950,000 shares of our common stock for a net purchase price of $9.2 million under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. In

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connection with the purchase, we issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 17,562 shares of our common stock as additional commitment shares in noncash transactions.

Economic Conditions, Challenges and Risks

Our performance, financial condition and prospects are affected by a number of factors and are exposed to a number of risks and uncertainties. We operate in a competitive and rapidly evolving industry in which new risks emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all of the risks we may face, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor or combination of factors could cause actual results to differ from our expectations. See the discussion of certain risks that we face under “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A of this report.

In recent periods, there has been a significant increase in worldwide supply of semiconductor memory and storage that has led to declines in demand and average selling prices for our products, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition. Our suppliers generally seek to increase wafer output, improve yields, and reduce die size, which could result in further increases in worldwide supply and downward pressure on prices.

The continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will have on our consolidated results of operations is uncertain. We will continue to actively monitor the situation and may take further actions altering our business operations that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, suppliers, and stakeholders, or as required by federal, state, or local authorities. It is not clear what the potential effects of such alterations or modifications may have on our business, consolidated results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.

Results of Operations

Net Sales and Gross Profit

Net sales and gross profit for the three months ended April 1, 2023, and April 2, 2022 were as follows (dollars in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

%

    

2023

    

2022

    

Change

    

Change

Net sales

9,021

50,200

(41,179)

(82%)

Cost of sales

8,461

46,837

(38,376)

(82%)

Gross profit

$

560

$

3,363

(2,803)

(83%)

Gross margin percentage

6%

7%

(0.5%)

Net Sales

Net sales include resales of certain components, modules, and other products, which include dual in-line memory module (“DIMMs”) and solid-state drives (“SSDs”). Net sales also include sales of Netlist’s own products.

Net sales decreased by approximately $41.2 million during the first quarter of 2023 compared to the same period of 2022, primarily as a result of a $29.9 million decrease in the sale of registered DIMM (“RDIMM”) and discrete memory component products, a $1.8 million decrease in sale of Netlist’s flash and SSD products, and a $9.5 million decrease in sales of low-profile memory subsystem products.

Gross Profit and Gross Margin

Product gross profit and product gross margin percentage decreased during the first quarter of 2023 compared to the same period of 2022, primarily as a result of lower sales across all product group and softer pricing environment.

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Operating Expenses

Operating expenses for the three months ended April 1, 2023, and April 2, 2022, were as follows (dollars in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

%

    

2023

    

2022

    

Change

    

Change

Research and development

$

2,301

$

2,457

$

(156)

(6%)

Percentage of net sales

26%

5%

Intellectual property legal fees

$

11,070

$

2,826

8,244

292%

Percentage of net sales

123%

6%

Selling, general and administrative

$

3,030

$

3,938

(908)

(23%)

Percentage of net sales

34%

8%

Research and Development

Research and development expenses decreased during the first quarter of 2023 compared to the same period of 2022 due primarily to a decrease in employee headcount and related overhead.

Intellectual Property Legal Fees

Intellectual property legal fees consist of fees incurred for, patent drafting and prosecution, opposition to third-party post-grant patent proceedings, and patent enforcement and licensing. Although we expect intellectual property legal fees to generally increase over time as we continue to expand, protect and enforce our patent portfolio, these increases may not be linear but may occur in lump sums depending on the due dates of filings and their associated fees, and the arrangements we may make with our legal advisors in connection with enforcement proceedings, which may include fee arrangements or contingent fee arrangements in which we would pay these legal advisors on a scaled percentage of any negotiated fees, settlements or judgments awarded to us based on if, how and when the fees, settlements or judgments are obtained. See Note 7 to the condensed consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this report for further discussion.

Intellectual property legal fees increased during the first quarter of 2023 compared to the same period of 2022 due primarily to higher legal expenses incurred to protect and enforce our patent portfolio.

Selling, General and Administrative

Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased during the first quarter of 2023 compared to the same period of 2022 due primarily to a decrease in employee headcount and overhead and outside services.

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Other Income (Expense), Net

Other income (expense), net for the three months ended April 1, 2023, and April 2, 2022 was as follows (dollars in thousands):

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

%

    

2023

    

2022

    

Change

    

Change

Interest income (expense), net

$

56

$

(11)

$

67

Other expense, net

(3)

(2)

(1)

Total other income (expense), net

$

53

$

(13)

$

66

508%

Interest income, net increased during the first quarter of 2023 compared to the same period of 2022, primarily as a result of a higher interest rate earned on cash balances. During the first quarter of 2023, other expense was consistent compared with the same period of 2022.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our primary sources of cash are historically proceeds from issuances of equity and debt securities and receipts from revenues. In addition, we have received proceeds from our entry into a Strategic Product Supply and License Agreement with SK hynix, Inc., a South Korean memory semiconductor supplier (“SK hynix”), on April 5, 2021 (the “Strategic Agreement”), which we use to support our operations. We have also funded our operations with a revolving line of credit under a bank credit facility, and to a lesser extent, equipment leasing arrangements. We are currently seeking to obtain a new bank credit facility to replace the terminated facility we had with SVB.

The following tables present selected financial information as of April 1, 2023, and December 31, 2022 and for the first three months of 2023 and 2022 (in thousands):

April 1,

December 31,

    

2023

    

2022

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

$

36,570

$

43,611

Long-term debt due within one year

301

447

Working capital

21,950

25,774

Three Months Ended

April 1,

April 2,

    

2023

    

2022

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

$

(12,714)

$

1,217

Net cash used in investing activities

-

(221)

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

5,673

(1,145)

During the three months ended April 1, 2023, net cash used in operating activities was primarily a result of net loss of $15.8 million, non-cash adjustments to net loss of $1.3 million, and net cash inflows from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $1.7 million driven predominantly by a decrease in accounts receivable and inventories, partially offset by a decrease in accounts payable due to lower inventory purchases. Net cash provided by financing activities during the three months ended April 1, 2023 primarily consisted of $10.5 million in net proceeds from issuance of common stock under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, $0.3 million in proceeds from exercise of stock options, offset by $4.9 million in net repayments under the SVB Credit Agreement and $0.1 million in payments of note payable to finance insurance policies.

During the three months ended April 2, 2022, net cash provided by operating activities was primarily a result of net loss of $5.9 million, non-cash adjustments to net loss of $0.9 million, and net cash inflows from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $6.2 million driven predominantly by an increase in accounts payable due to higher inventory purchases to support increase in sales and higher legal fees to defend our patent portfolio, and a decrease in accounts

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receivable. Net cash used in financing activities during the three months ended April 2, 2022 primarily consisted of $1.8 million in net proceeds from issuance of common stock under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement, $0.1 million in proceeds from exercise of stock options, offset by $2.3 million in net repayments under the SVB Credit Agreement and $0.6 million in payments for taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards.

Capital Resources

September 2021 Lincoln Park Purchase Agreement

On September 28, 2021, we entered into the September 2021 Purchase Agreement with Lincoln Park, pursuant to which we have the right to sell to Lincoln Park up to an aggregate of $75.0 million in shares of our common stock over the 36-month term of the September 2021 Purchase Agreement subject to the conditions and limitations set forth in the September 2021 Purchase Agreement. As of April 1, 2023, $49.2 million remains available under the September 2021 Purchase Agreement with Lincoln Park.

SVB Credit Agreement

On October 31, 2009, we entered into the SVB Credit Agreement, which provided for a revolving line of credit of up to $10.0 million, as amended. The SVB Credit Agreement was most recently amended on April 29, 2022 to add 50% of eligible inventory to the previous borrowing base limited to 85% of eligible accounts receivable, subject to certain adjustments. Borrowings accrued interest on advance at a per annum rate equal to the greater of 0.75% above the Prime Rate or 4.25%. The maturity date was April 28, 2023, as amended.

On April 28, 2023, the SVB Credit Agreement terminated in accordance with its terms. In connection with the termination of the SVB Credit Agreement, on April 28, 2023, all outstanding obligations for principal, interest, and fees under the SVB Credit Agreement were paid off in full and all liens securing such obligations were released.

Sufficiency of Cash Balances and Potential Sources of Additional Capital

We believe our existing balance of cash and cash equivalents together with cash receipts from revenues, the equity financing available under September 2021 Purchase Agreement, funds raised through other future debt and equity offerings and taking into account cash expected to be used in our operations, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next 12 months.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditure or capital resources that is material to investors.

Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates

The preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of net sales and expenses during the reporting period. By their nature, these estimates and assumptions are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty. We base our estimates and assumptions on our historical experience, knowledge of current conditions and our beliefs of what could occur in the future considering available information. We review our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Actual results may differ from our estimates, which may result in material adverse effects on our consolidated operating results and financial position.

Our critical accounting policies and estimates are discussed in Note 2 to the condensed consolidated financial statements in this report and in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of our 2022 Annual

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Report and in the MD&A in our 2022 Annual Report. There have been no significant changes to our critical accounting policies since our 2022 Annual Report.

Item 3. 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

The majority of our sales and our expenses are denominated in U.S. dollars. Since we operate in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”), a percentage of our operational expenses are denominated in Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”) and exchange volatility could positively or negatively impact those operating costs. Additionally, we may hold certain assets and liabilities in local currency on our consolidated balance sheet. As the operational expenses in RMB is immaterial, we do not believe that foreign exchange volatility has a material impact on our current business or results of operations.

Item 4. 

Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports we file or submit under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.

Our management conducted an evaluation, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) promulgated under the Exchange Act) as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on this evaluation, due to the elimination of our audit committee in August 2020, our principal executive officer and our principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of April 1, 2023.

Notwithstanding the material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, we have concluded that the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-Q fairly present, in all material respects, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in conformity with U.S. GAAP.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the quarter ended April 1, 2023 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Remediation Initiatives

In an effort to address the identified material weakness and enhance our internal controls related to our lack of an independent board and audit committee, we continue to maintain our financial reporting process we followed to prepare consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP for audit committee meetings on a quarterly and annual basis. We engage all departments groups to identify risks to the achievement of our goals as a basis for determining how the risks should be managed. Our Chief Executive Officer and sole director will oversee the process to ensure all required disclosures are made in our consolidated financial statements on a quarterly and annual basis.

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PART II. — OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. 

Legal Proceedings

The information under “Litigation and Patent Reexaminations” in Note 7 to the condensed consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this report is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Risks Related to Our Business, Operations and Industry

Significant increases in worldwide supply of semiconductor memory and storage could lead to declines in demand and average selling prices for our products, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition;
We have historically incurred losses and may continue to incur losses;
We maintain our cash at financial institutions, often in balances that exceed federally insured limits;
We may not be able to collect the damages awarded to us in our litigation with Samsung, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results;
The vast majority of our net product sales in recent periods have been generated from resales of component products, including products sourced from SK hynix, and any decline in these product resales could significantly harm our performance;
We face risks related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the related protective public health measures;
We are subject to risks relating to our focus on developing our Compute Express Link (“CXL”) products for our target customer markets;
Sales to a small number of customers have historically represented a significant portion of our net product sales, and the loss of, or a significant reduction in sales to, any one of these customers could materially harm our business;
We are subject to risks of disruption in the supply of component products;
Our customers require that our products undergo a lengthy and expensive qualification process without any assurance of sales;
If we are unable to timely and cost-effectively develop new or enhanced products that achieve customer and market acceptance or technologies we can monetize, our revenues and prospects could be materially harmed;
We face intense competition in our industry, and we may not be able to compete successfully in our target markets;
Our operating results may be adversely impacted by worldwide economic and political uncertainties and specific conditions in the markets we address and in which we or our strategic partners or competitors do business, including ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the cyclical nature of and volatility in the memory market and semiconductor industry;
Our lack of a significant backlog of unfilled orders and the difficulty inherent in estimating customer demand makes it difficult to forecast our short-term requirements, and any failure to optimally calibrate our production capacity and inventory levels to meet customer demand could adversely affect our revenues, gross margin and earnings;
Declines in our average sale prices, driven by volatile prices for components and other factors, may result in declines in our revenues and gross margin;
Our manufacturing operations involve significant risks;
We depend on third parties to design and manufacture components for our products and the component products we resell, which exposes us to risks;
If our products or the component products we resell do not meet quality standards or are defective or used in defective systems, we may be subject to quality holds, warranty claims, recalls or liability claims;

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Our indemnification obligations for the infringement by our products of the rights of others could require us to pay substantial damages;
We depend on certain key employees, and our business could be harmed if we lose the services of any of these employees or are unable to attract and retain other qualified personnel;
We rely on our internal and third-party sales representatives to market and sell our products and the component products we resell, and any failure by these representatives to perform as expected could reduce our sales;
Our operations could be disrupted by power outages, natural disasters, cyber-attacks or other factors;
Difficulties with our global information technology systems, including any unauthorized access or cyber-attacks, could harm our business;
If we do not effectively manage any future growth we may experience, our resources, systems and controls may be strained and our results of operations may suffer;
If we acquire businesses or technologies or pursue other strategic transactions or relationships in the future, these transactions could disrupt our business and harm our operating results and financial condition;
Increased prices and inflation could negatively impact our margin performance and our financial results; and
Geopolitical risks associated with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine could result in increased market volatility and uncertainty, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Risks Related to Laws and Regulations

We are exposed to additional business, regulatory, political, operational, financial and economic risks related to our international sales and operations;
Our failure to comply with environmental and other applicable laws and regulations could subject us to significant fines and liabilities or cause us to incur significant costs;
Regulations related to “conflict minerals” may cause us to incur additional expenses and could limit the supply and increase the cost of certain metals used in manufacturing our products;
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate the material weakness, or if we identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect our business; and
We are required to comply with certain provisions of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (“Section 404”), that place significant demands on our resources, and the transition to the higher reporting and control standards that applies to us as a “large accelerated filer” may cause management distraction and increased costs.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property and Litigation

We may be unsuccessful in monetizing our intellectual property portfolio;
We are and expect to continue to be involved in other legal and administrative proceedings to enforce or protect our intellectual property rights and to defend against claims that we infringe the intellectual property rights of others;
If our proprietary rights are not protected, our customers or our competitors might gain access to our proprietary designs, processes and technologies, which could adversely affect our operating results; and
We may become involved in non-patent related litigation and administrative proceedings that may materially adversely affect us.

Risks Related to Capitalization and Financial Markets

We may not have sufficient working capital to fund our planned operations, and, as a result, we may need to raise additional capital in the future, which may not be available when needed, on acceptable terms or at all;

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The price and trading volume of our common stock has and may continue to fluctuate significantly in reaction to real or perceived developments in our business;
We expect to incur additional indebtedness to support the growth of our business and to facilitate effective working capital. Our level of indebtedness and the terms of such indebtedness could adversely affect our operations and liquidity;
Adverse developments affecting financial institutions, companies in the financial services industry or the financial services industry generally could adversely affect our operations and liquidity;
There is a limited market for our common shares, and the trading price of our common shares is subject to volatility;
Future issuances of our common stock or rights to purchase our common stock, including pursuant to our equity incentive plans, could result in additional dilution to the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause the price of our common stock to decline;
Sales of our common stock, or the perception that such sales could occur, could cause the market price of our stock to drop significantly, regardless of the state of our business;
As a sole director, Chun K. Hong has significant control over all corporate decisions that may not be in the best interest of our other stockholders;
Anti-takeover provisions under our charter documents and Delaware law, as well as our rights agreement, could delay or prevent a change of control and could also limit the market price of our common stock; and
We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common stock, and any return to investors is expected to result, if at all, only from potential increases in the price of our common stock.

Risks Related to Our Business, Operations and Industry

Significant increases in worldwide supply of semiconductor memory and storage could lead to declines in demand and average selling prices for our products, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition.

Our suppliers generally seek to increase wafer output, improve yields, and reduce die size, which could result in significant increases in worldwide supply and downward pressure on prices. Increases in worldwide supply of semiconductor memory and storage also result from fabrication capacity expansions, either by way of new facilities, increased capacity utilization, or reallocation of other semiconductor production to semiconductor memory and storage production. Increases in worldwide supply of semiconductor memory and storage could lead to declines in average selling prices and a decrease in short-term and/or long-term demand resulting in industry oversupply and could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition.

We have historically incurred losses and may continue to incur losses.

Since the inception of our business in 2000, we have only experienced two fiscal years (2006 and 2021) with profitable results. In order to sustain profitability, or to achieve and sustain positive cash flows from operations, we must reduce operating expenses and/or increase our revenues and gross margin. Although we have in the past engaged in a series of cost reduction actions, such expense reductions alone will not make us profitable or allow us to sustain profitability if it is achieved, and eliminating or reducing strategic initiatives could limit our opportunities and prospects. Our ability to sustain profitability will depend on increased revenue growth from, among other things, increased demand for our product offerings and our ability to monetize our intellectual property. We may not be successful in any of these pursuits, and we may not be able to sustain profitability if achieved.

We maintain our cash at financial institutions, often in balances that exceed federally insured limits.

We hold our cash and cash equivalents that we use to meet our working capital needs in deposit accounts at multiple financial institutions. The balance held in these accounts may exceed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) standard deposit insurance limit or similar government guarantee schemes. If a financial institution in which we hold such funds fails or is subject to significant adverse conditions in the financial or credit markets, we could be subject to a risk of loss of all or a portion of such uninsured funds or be subject to a delay in accessing all or a portion of

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such uninsured funds. Any such loss or lack of access to these funds could adversely impact our short-term liquidity and ability to meet our obligations.

For example, on March 10, 2023, SVB, and on March 12, 2023, Signature Bank, were closed by state regulators and the FDIC was appointed receiver for each bank. The FDIC created successor bridge banks and all deposits of SVB and Signature Bank were transferred to the bridge banks under a systemic risk exception approved by the United States Department of the Treasury, the Federal Reserve and the FDIC. If financial institutions in which we hold funds for working capital were to fail, we cannot provide any assurances that such governmental agencies would take action to protect our uninsured deposits in a similar manner.

We may not be able to collect the damages awarded to us in our litigation with Samsung, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results

As previously reported, in our litigation with Samsung, we were awarded damages of approximately $303 million. The outcome of the trial is subject to appeal, though we have no knowledge as to whether Samsung will or will not appeal the judgment. An appeal by Samsung would likely cause a lengthy delay in our ability to collect the award and could result in a reversal or reduction of the award. With or without an appeal, we would need to successfully collect damages awarded to us. In addition, if the judgment is appealed and we are unable to sustain our operations through an appeal process, we may be required to raise additional capital through proceeds from other litigated matters or debt or equity financing. We cannot be certain that we will prevail or settle in any other ongoing litigation, or that any additional financing we may need will be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. If we do not receive funds from other litigation matters or secure financing in the future, we may be forced to liquidate our assets or discontinue our operations altogether.

The vast majority of our net product sales in recent periods have been generated from resales of component products, including products sourced from SK hynix, and any decline in these product resales could significantly harm our performance.

The vast majority of our net product sales in recent periods have been generated from resales of computer memory and storage components and products, including but not limited to SSDs, NAND flash and DIMMs. We resell products to end-customers that are not reached in the distribution models of the component manufacturers, including storage customers, appliance customers, system builders and cloud and datacenter customers.

These resales are subject to a number of risks. For example, demand for any computer memory or storage products could decline at any time for a number of reasons, including, among others, changing customer requirements or preferences, product obsolescence, introduction of more advanced or otherwise superior competing products by our competitors, the ability of our customers to obtain these products or substitute products from alternate sources (including from the manufacturer directly), customers reducing their need for these products generally, or the other risk factors described in this report. We have no long-term agreements or other commitments with respect to sales of these or any of the other products we sell. As a result, any decrease in demand for these products from us would reduce our sale levels and could materially adversely impact our revenues. Additionally, opportunistic purchases of products for resale, when coupled with a decrease in demand, may cause us to write off excess inventory which would adversely affect our operating performance.

We may experience supply shortages at any time and for a variety of reasons, including, among others, spikes in customer demand that cannot be satisfied, any problems that arise with SK hynix’s manufacturing operations or facilities that cause disruptions or delays, including from the recent COVID-19 pandemic, or any failure to comply with the terms of the agreements regarding the supply of these products. If we choose, or if we are forced, to seek to supply the component products we resell from other suppliers, we may not be able to identify other suppliers that are available and able to produce the particular components with the specific product specifications and in the quantities our customers require, or we may not be able to make arrangements with any other suppliers in a timely manner to avoid delays in satisfying customer orders. Further, even if we are able to make arrangements with other suppliers for sufficient component products to replace any undersupply from SK hynix, we may not be able to make these arrangements on financial and other terms comparable to those we have negotiated with SK hynix. As a result, any inability to obtain

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sufficient component products from SK hynix could increase our cost of sales for component product resales if we are forced to pay higher prices to obtain the products from other suppliers. Moreover, all of our supply arrangements for these component products and any arrangements we may establish with other suppliers, are subject to the other supply and manufacturing risks discussed elsewhere in these risk factors.

Increased reliance on product resales also has a substantial impact on our results of operations. Because the cost of the component products we purchase for resale is added to our cost of sales for these products, our gross margin on resales of component products is significantly lower than our gross margin on sales of our own memory subsystem products. As a result, increased resales of component products as a percentage of our total product sales have a significant negative impact on our gross margin and gross margin percentage. This gross margin and gross margin percentage differential between memory product sales and component product resales would be amplified if our costs to purchase component products were to increase. The occurrence of any one or more of these risks could cause our performance to materially suffer.

We face risks related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the related protective public health measures.

COVID-19 has spread globally and has resulted in authorities imposing, and businesses and individuals implementing, numerous unprecedented measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place/stay-at-home and social distancing orders, and shutdowns. These measures have impacted and may further impact our workforce and operations, the operations of our customers, and those of our respective vendors, suppliers, and partners. The ultimate impact and efficacy of government measures and potential future measures is currently unknown. In addition, the continued spread of COVID-19 variants, or the occurrence of other epidemics could result in a widespread health crisis that could adversely affect the economies and financial markets of many countries, resulting in an economic downturn that could affect demand for our products and further adversely impact our results of operations.

There are numerous uncertainties associated with the COVID-19 outbreak, including the number of individuals who will become infected, whether vaccination level will increase sufficiently to stop the spread of COVID-19 and its variants, and the extent of the protective and preventative measures that have been put in place by both governmental entities and other businesses and those that may be put in place in the future. Any or all of the foregoing uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position and/or cash flows.

We are subject to risks relating to our focus on developing our CXL products for our target customer markets.

We have historically derived revenues from sales of our high-performance modular memory subsystems to original equipment manufacturers (“OEM”) in the server, high-performance computing and communications markets. Although we expect these memory subsystems to continue to account for a portion of our revenues, we have experienced declines in sales of these products in recent periods, and these declines could continue or intensify in the future. We believe market acceptance of these products or derivative products that incorporate our core memory subsystem technology is critical to our success, and any continued decline in sales of these products could have a material adverse impact on our performance and long-term prospects.

We have invested significant research and development time and capital in the design of application-specific integrated circuits (“ASIC”) and hybrid devices, including our CXL technology-based memory expansion controller. These products are subject to significant risks, including:

we are dependent on a limited number of suppliers for the non-volatile memory, volatile memory, and ASIC components that are essential to the functionality of these products, and in the past, we have experienced supply chain disruptions and shortages of volatile and non-volatile memory components required to create these products as a result of issues that are specific to our suppliers or the industry as a whole;
CXL and some of our other next-generation products may require additional time including the services and attention of key employees who have competing demands on their available time and may require capital investment to bring the products to market;

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our development and commercialization strategies for these products;
we are required to demonstrate the quality and reliability of our products to and qualify them with our customers before purchases are made, which requires investments of time and resources in significant and unpredictable amounts prior to the receipt of any revenues from these customers; and
our memory expansion controller products or other new products, such as CXL, may contain currently undiscovered flaws, the correction of which could result in increased costs and time to market.

These and other risks associated with our memory subsystem products could impair our ability to obtain customer or market acceptance of these products or obtain such acceptance in a timely manner, which would reduce our achievable revenues from these products and limit our ability to recoup our investments in developing these technologies.

Additionally, if the demand for servers deteriorates, if the demand for our products to be incorporated in servers continues to decline, or if demand for our products deteriorates because customers in our other target markets change their requirements or preferences or otherwise reduce their need for these types of products generally, our operating results would be adversely affected, and we would be forced to diversify our product portfolio and our target customer markets in order to try to replace revenues lost from the further decreases in product sales. We may not be able to achieve this diversification, and any inability to do so may adversely affect our business, operating performance and prospects.

Sales to a small number of customers have historically represented a significant portion of our net product sales, and the loss of, or a significant reduction in sales to, any one of these customers could materially harm our business.

Our target markets are characterized by a limited number of large companies, and consolidation in one or more of these markets may further increase this concentration. As a result, sales to small numbers of customers have historically represented a substantial portion of our net product sales, and we expect this concentration to continue. Additionally, the composition of major customers and their respective contributions to our net product sales have fluctuated and will likely continue to fluctuate from period to period as our existing and prospective customers progress through the life cycle of the products they produce and sell and experience resulting fluctuations in their product demand. We believe our performance depends in significant part on our ability to establish and maintain relationships with and effect substantial sales to our large customers.

We do not have long-term agreements with any of our customers and, as result, any or all of them could decide at any time to decrease, delay or discontinue their purchase of our products or the component products we resell. In addition, the prices customers pay for products are subject to fluctuations, and large or key customers may exert pressure on us to make concessions in the prices at which we sell products to them. Further, we may not be able to sell some of our products developed for one customer to a different customer because our products are often customized to address specific customer requirements, and even if we are able to sell these products to another customer, our margin on these products may be reduced. Additionally, although customers are generally allowed only limited rights of return after purchasing our products or the component products we resell, we may determine that it is in our best interest to accept returns from certain large or key customers even if we are not contractually obligated to accept them in order to maintain good relations with these customers. Any returns beyond our expectations could negatively impact our operating results. Moreover, because a few customers often account for a substantial portion of our net product sales, the failure of any one of these customers to pay on a timely basis would negatively impact our cash flows. As a result, our net product sales and operating results could be materially adversely affected by the loss of any of our customers, particularly our large or key customers, a decrease in product sales to any of our customers, including as a result of normal fluctuations in demand or other factors, reductions in the prices at which we sell products to any of our customers, including as a result of price concessions or general declines in average sale prices, or difficulties collecting payments from any of our customers.

Our ability to maintain or increase our product sales to our key customers depends on a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include our customers’ continued sales of servers and other computing systems that incorporate our memory subsystems, our customers’ continued incorporation of our products or the component products we resell into their systems, and our customers’ sales activity and business results. Because of these

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and other factors, sales to these customers may not continue and the amount of such sales may not reach or exceed historical levels in any future period.

We are subject to risks of disruption in the supply of component products.

Our ability to fulfill customer orders for or produce qualification samples of our products, as well as orders for the components and/or products we resell, is dependent on a sufficient supply of SSDs, field programmable gate arrays (“FPGAs”), ASICs, volatile memory components, and non-volatile memory components. Further, there are a relatively small number of suppliers of these components, and we typically purchase from only a subset of these suppliers. As a result, our inventory purchases have historically been concentrated in a small number of suppliers, including SK hynix, from which we obtained a large portion of our component products purchased for resale. We also use consumables and other components, including printed circuit boards (“PCBs”), to manufacture our memory subsystems, which we sometimes procure from single or limited sources to take advantage of volume pricing discounts.

From time to time, shortages in SSDs, volatile memory components, and/or non-volatile memory components have required some suppliers to limit the supply of these components. In the past, we have experienced supply chain disruptions and shortages of SSDs, volatile memory components, and/or non-volatile memory components required to create certain of our memory subsystem products, and we have been forced to procure the component products we resell from other suppliers to the extent sufficient product is not available from SK hynix to meet customer demand or in the event of other SK hynix supply issues. We are continually working to secure adequate supplies of the components necessary to fill customers’ orders in a timely manner. If we are unable to obtain a sufficient supply of SSDs, volatile memory components, non-volatile memory components and/or other essential components, as a result of a natural disaster, political unrest military conflict, medical epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, economic instability, equipment failure or other cause, to avoid interruptions or failures in the delivery of our products as required by our customers or the delivery of these components to customers to whom we resell them directly, these customers may reduce future orders for these products or not purchase these products from us at all, which could cause our net product sales to decline and harm our operating results. In addition, our reputation could be harmed due to failures to meet our customers’ demands and, even assuming we are successful in resolving supply chain disruptions, we may not be able to replace any lost business and we may lose market share to our competitors. Further, if our suppliers are unable to produce qualification samples of our products on a timely basis or at all, we could experience delays in the qualification process with existing or prospective customers, which could have a significant impact on our ability to sell our products. Moreover, if we are not able to obtain these components in the amounts needed on a timely basis and at commercially reasonable prices, we may not be able to develop or introduce new products, we may experience significant increases in our cost of sales if we are forced to procure components from alternative suppliers and are not able to negotiate favorable terms with these suppliers, or we may be forced to cease our sales of products dependent on the components or resales of the components we sell to customers directly.

Our dependence on a small number of suppliers and the components we resell expose us to several risks, including the inability to obtain an adequate supply of these components, increases in their costs, delivery delays and poor quality. Additionally, our customers qualify certain of the components provided by our suppliers for use in their systems. If one of our suppliers experiences quality control or other problems, it may be disqualified by one or more of our customers. This would disrupt our supplies of these components, and would also reduce the number of suppliers available to us and may require that we qualify a new supplier, which we may not be able to do.

Declines in customer demand for our products in recent periods have caused us to reduce our purchases of SSDs, volatile memory components, and non-volatile memory components for use in our products. Such declines or other fluctuations could continue in the future. If we fail to maintain sufficient purchase levels with some suppliers, our ability to obtain supplies of these raw materials may be impaired due to the practice of some suppliers of allocating their products to customers with the highest regular demand.

Frequent technology changes and the introduction of next-generation versions of component products may also result in the obsolescence of our inventory on-hand, which could involve significant time and costs to replace, reduce our net product sales and gross margin and adversely affect our operating performance and financial condition.

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Our customers require that our products undergo a lengthy and expensive qualification process without any assurance of sales.

Our prospective customers generally test and evaluate our memory subsystems before purchasing our products and integrating them into their systems. This extensive qualification process involves rigorous reliability testing and evaluation of our products, which may continue for nine months or longer and is often subject to delays. In addition to qualification of specific products, some of our customers may also require us to undergo a technology qualification if our product designs incorporate innovative technologies that the customer has not previously encountered. Such technology qualifications often take substantially longer than product qualifications and can take over a year to complete. Even after our products are qualified with existing or new customers, the customer may take several months to begin purchasing the product or may decide not to purchase the product at all, as qualification does not ensure product sales. As a result, we could receive no or limited revenues from a customer even after our investment of time and resources in the qualification process with this customer, which could adversely affect our operating results.

Even after successful qualification and sales of our products to a customer, because the qualification process is both product-specific and platform-specific, our existing customers sometimes require us to re-qualify our products or to qualify our new products for use in new platforms or applications. For example, as our OEM customers transition from prior generation architectures to current generation architectures, we must design and qualify new products for use by these customers. Our net product sales to these customers can decline significantly during this re-qualification process.

Likewise, changes in our products, our manufacturing facilities, our production processes or our component suppliers may require a new qualification process. For example, if our SSD, volatile memory component, and non-volatile memory component suppliers discontinue production of these products or components, it may be necessary for us to design and qualify new products for our customers. As a result, some customers may require us, or we may decide, to purchase an estimated quantity of discontinued memory components necessary to ensure a steady supply of existing products until products with new components can be qualified. Purchases of this nature may affect our liquidity. Additionally, our forecasts of quantities required during the transition may be incorrect, which could adversely impact our results of operations through lost revenue opportunities or charges related to excess and obsolete inventory.

We must devote substantial resources, including design, engineering, sales, marketing and management efforts, to qualify our products with prospective customers in anticipation of sales. Significant delays or other difficulties in the qualification process could result in an inability to keep pace with rapid technology change or new competitive products. If we experience delays or do not succeed in qualifying a product with an existing or prospective customer, we would not be able to sell that product to that customer, which may result in excess and obsolete inventory that we may not be able to sell to another customer and could reduce our net product sales and customer base, any of which could materially harm our operating results and business.

If we are unable to timely and cost-effectively develop new or enhanced products that achieve customer and market acceptance or technologies we can monetize, our revenues and prospects could be materially harmed.

Our industry is characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards and rapid product obsolescence. As a result, continuous development of new technology, processes and product innovations is necessary in order to be successful. We believe the continued and timely development of new products and technologies and improvement of existing products and technologies are critical to our business and prospects for growth.

In order to develop and introduce new or enhanced products and technologies, we need to:

retain and continue to attract new engineers with expertise in memory subsystems and our key technology competencies;
identify and adjust to the changing requirements and preferences of our existing and potential future customers and markets;
identify and adapt to emerging technological trends and evolving industry standards in our markets;
continue to develop and enhance our design tools, manufacturing processes and other technologies on which we rely to produce new products or product enhancements;

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design and introduce cost-effective, innovative and performance-enhancing features that differentiate our products and technologies from those of our competitors;
secure licenses to enable us to use any technologies, processes or other rights essential to the manufacture or use of any new products or product enhancements we may develop, which licenses may not be available when needed, on acceptable terms or at all;
maintain or develop new relationships with suppliers of components required for any new or enhanced products and technologies;
qualify any new or enhanced products for use in our customers’ products; and
develop and maintain effective commercialization and marketing strategies.

We may not be successful at any of these activities. As a result, we may not be able to successfully develop new or enhanced products or technology or we may experience delays in this process. Failures or delays in product development and introduction could result in the loss of, or delays in generating, net products sales or other revenues and the loss of key customer relationships. Even if we develop new or enhanced products or technologies, they may not meet our customers’ requirements, gain market acceptance or attract monetization opportunities, as our product and technology development efforts are inherently risky due to the challenges of foreseeing changes or developments in technology, predicting changes in customer requirements or preferences or anticipating the adoption of new industry standards. Moreover, we have invested significant resources in our product and technology development efforts, which would be lost if we fail to generate revenues from these efforts. If any of these risks occur, our revenues, prospects and reputation could be materially adversely affected.

We face intense competition in our industry, and we may not be able to compete successfully in our target markets.

Our products are primarily targeted to OEMs in the server, high-performance computing and communications markets. In addition, we resell certain component products to storage customers, appliance customers, system builders and cloud and datacenter customers. These markets are intensely competitive, as numerous companies vie for business opportunities at a limited number of large OEMs and other customers. We face competition from volatile memory component suppliers, memory module providers, and logic suppliers for many of our products. We also face competition from the manufacturers and distributors of the component products we resell to customers, as these manufacturers and distributors could decide at any time to sell these component products to these customers directly. Additionally, if and to the extent we enter new markets or pursue licensing arrangements to monetize our technologies and intellectual property portfolio, we may face competition from a large number of competitors that produce solutions utilizing similar or competing technologies.

Some of our customers and suppliers may have proprietary products or technologies that are competitive with our products or the components we resell to them or could develop internal solutions or enter into strategic relationships with, or acquire, other high-density memory module or component providers. Any of these actions could reduce our customers’ demand for our products or the component products we resell. Additionally, some of our significant suppliers could choose to sell component products to customers directly, which would adversely affect our ability to resell these products, or may choose to manufacture competitive memory subsystem products themselves or reduce our supply of essential components of our products, which could adversely affect our ability to manufacture and sell our memory subsystems.

We believe our ability to compete in our current target markets and potential future markets will depend in part on our ability to successfully and timely develop, introduce and sell at attractive prices new and enhanced products or technologies and otherwise respond to changing market requirements, which we may not be able to do faster and better than our competitors. Moreover, many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical, marketing, distribution and other resources, broader product lines, lower cost structures, greater brand recognition, more influence on industry standards, more extensive or established patent portfolios and longer standing relationships with customers and suppliers. We may not be able to compete effectively against any of these organizations. If we are unable to compete effectively, then our market position and prospects could deteriorate and our revenues could decline.

Our operating results may be adversely impacted by worldwide economic and political uncertainties and specific conditions in the markets we address and in which we or our strategic partners or competitors do business, including

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ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the cyclical nature of and volatility in the memory market and semiconductor industry.

Changes in domestic and global economic and political conditions make it difficult for our customers, our vendors and us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities, and these conditions have caused and could continue to cause U.S. and foreign businesses to slow or decrease spending on our products and the products we resell.

In addition, sales of our products and the products we resell are dependent on demand by customers in our target markets. These markets are characterized by wide fluctuations in product supply and demand and have been cyclical in the past, which may result in substantial period-to-period fluctuations in our operating results. In addition, these markets have in the past experienced significant downturns, often connected with or in anticipation of maturing product cycles, reductions in technology spending and declines in general economic conditions. During these downturns, product demand diminishes, production capacity exceeds demand, inventory levels increase and average sale prices decline, all of which would materially adversely impact our business and operating results. In addition, because many of our costs and operating expenses are relatively fixed, if we are unable to control our expenses adequately in response to reduced product demand and sales, our gross margin and cash flows would be negatively impacted. Further, such a downturn could decrease the perceived value of our intellectual property portfolio and reduce our ability to pursue our intellectual property monetization objectives.

During challenging economic times, our customers may face challenges gaining timely access to sufficient credit, which could impair their ability to make timely payments to us. This may negatively affect our liquidity and cash flows and require us to increase our allowance for doubtful accounts. Furthermore, our vendors may face similar issues gaining access to credit, which may limit their ability to supply components or provide trade credit to us. We are monitoring ongoing events involving limited liquidity, defaults, non-performance or other adverse developments that affect financial institutions or other companies in the financial services industry or the financial services industry generally, including the events that have impacted SVB. We are also monitoring the impacts that these events may have on our customers and vendors.

We cannot predict the timing, strength or duration of any economic slowdown or subsequent economic recovery, either generally or in our customer markets. If the economy or markets in which we operate experience such a slowdown, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The combination of our lengthy sales cycle coupled with any challenging macroeconomic conditions could compound the negative impact of any such downturn on the results of our operations.

Our lack of a significant backlog of unfilled orders and the difficulty inherent in estimating customer demand makes it difficult to forecast our short-term requirements, and any failure to optimally calibrate our production capacity and inventory levels to meet customer demand could adversely affect our revenues, gross margin and earnings.

We make significant decisions regarding the levels of business we will seek and accept, production schedules, component procurement, personnel needs and other resource requirements based on our estimates of customer demand. We do not have long-term agreements with any of our customers. Instead, our product sales are made primarily pursuant to stand-alone purchase orders that we often receive no more than two weeks in advance of the desired delivery date and that may be rescheduled or cancelled on relatively short notice. The short-term nature of the commitments by many of our customers and our customers’ ability to cancel or defer purchase orders for any reason reduces our backlog of firm orders and our ability to accurately estimate future customer requirements for our products or the component products we resell. These facts, combined with the short turnaround times that apply to most orders, makes it difficult to predict our production and inventory needs and allocate production capacity and capital for inventory purchases effectively. As a result, we attempt to forecast the demand for the components needed to manufacture our products and to resell to customers directly, but any such forecasts could turn out to be wrong. Further, lead times for components vary significantly and depend on various factors, such as the specific supplier and the demand and supply for a component at any given time.

Our production expense and component purchase levels are to a large extent fixed in the short term. As a result, we may be unable to adjust spending on a timely basis to compensate for any unexpected shortfall in customer orders. If

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we overestimate customer demand, we may have excess component or finished goods inventory, which may not be able to be used in other products or resold and may become obsolete before any such use or resale. If there is a subsequent decline in the prices of components, the value of our inventory would fall and we may be required to write-down the value of our component inventory, which may result in a significant increase in our cost of sales and decrease in our gross margin. In the past, we have had to write-down inventory due to obsolescence, excess quantities and declines in market value below our costs. As a result, any significant shortfall of customer orders in relation to our expectations could hurt our operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

Conversely, any rapid increases in demand by our customers could strain our resources. If we underestimate customer demand, we may not have sufficient inventory of necessary components on hand to meet that demand and we may need to try to procure additional quantities, which may not be available or may only be available at high prices or on otherwise unfavorable terms. We also may not have sufficient manufacturing capacity at any given time to meet any demands for rapid increases in production of our memory subsystem products. Any shortages of inventory or manufacturing capacity could lead to delays in the delivery of products, which may force us to forego sales opportunities, reduce our net product sales and damage our customer relationships.

In addition, if our product demand forecasts are wrong, we may understate or overstate the provision required for excess and obsolete inventory. If our inventories are determined to be overvalued, we would be required to recognize additional expense in our cost of sales at the time of the determination. Conversely, if our inventories are determined to be undervalued, we may have over-reported our costs of sales in previous periods and would be required to recognize additional gross margin at the time the inventories are sold.

Declines in our average sale prices, driven by volatile prices for components and other factors, may result in declines in our revenues and gross margin.

Our industry has historically been characterized by declines in average sale prices. If sale price declines are not offset by corresponding decreases in costs or increases in sales volume or sales of products with higher margins, these sale price declines could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

The prices customers pay for the products we sell can fluctuate due to many factors, including, among others, competitive conditions in our key customer markets, changes in customer requirements or preferences, volatility in the market prices for SSDs, volatile memory components, non-volatile memory components, and other components or products, and changes in manufacturing efficiencies or capacities related to the aforementioned. Market prices for component products have historically constituted a substantial portion of the total cost of our memory subsystems and in recent periods have constituted the vast majority of the cost of resales of these products to customers directly. As a result, fluctuations in the prices for these component products, due to overcapacity in worldwide supply or increased manufacturing efficiencies, implementation of new manufacturing processes or expansion of manufacturing capacity by component suppliers, among other factors, significantly impact our costs to sell our products or component products.

Once our prices with a customer are negotiated, we are generally unable to revise pricing with that customer until our next regularly scheduled price adjustment. As a result, if market prices for essential components increase, we generally cannot pass the price increases through to our customers for products purchased under an existing purchase order. Consequently, we are exposed to the risks associated with the volatility of prices for these components and our cost of sales could increase and our gross margin could decrease in the event of sudden price increases. Alternatively, if there are declines in the prices of these components, we may be required to reduce our selling prices for subsequent purchase orders, which may result in a decline in our net product sales.

Our manufacturing operations involve significant risks.

We maintain a manufacturing facility in the PRC at which we produce a portion of our products. These manufacturing activities require significant resources to maintain. For instance, we must continuously review and improve our manufacturing processes in order to maintain satisfactory manufacturing yields and product performance, try to lower our costs and otherwise remain competitive. As we manufacture new and more complex products, the risk of encountering delays, difficulties or higher costs increases. In addition, the start-up costs associated with implementing

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new manufacturing technologies, methods and processes, including the purchase of new equipment and any resulting manufacturing delays and inefficiencies, could negatively impact our results of operations.

Additionally, we could experience a prolonged disruption, material malfunction, interruption or other loss of operations at our manufacturing facility for any number of reasons, including the occurrence of a contagious disease or illness, such as COVID-19, or cyber-attacks, or catastrophic weather events, or we may need to add manufacturing capacity to satisfy any increased demand for our products. Under these circumstances, we may be forced to rely on third parties for our manufacturing needs, which could increase our manufacturing costs, decrease our gross margin, decrease our control over manufacturing processes, limit our ability to satisfy customer requirements and demand and delay new product development until we could secure a relationship with a third-party manufacturer, which we may not be able to do in a timely manner, on acceptable terms or at all. If any of these risks occur, our operations, performance and customer relationships could be severely harmed.

We also may need to expand our existing manufacturing facility or establish a new facility in the future. Any need to expand or replace our manufacturing facility would be expensive and time-consuming and could also subject us to factory audits by our customers that could themselves result in delays, unexpected costs or customer losses if we cannot meet the standards of any such audits. Further, we may not be able to replace or increase our manufacturing capacity at all. The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We depend on third parties to design and manufacture components for our products and the component products we resell, which exposes us to risks.

Components that are used in our products, as well as all of the component products we resell, are designed and manufactured by third parties. In addition, some of our memory subsystem products rely on significantly customized components. The ability and willingness of third parties to enter into these engagements with us and perform in accordance with these engagements is largely outside our control. If one or more of our design or manufacturing partners experiences a manufacturing disruption for any number of factors including labor disruptions, catastrophic weather events and the occurrence of a contagious disease or illness, such as COVID-19, fails to dedicate adequate resources to the production of the components we use in our products or the components we resell, experiences financial instability or otherwise fails to perform its obligations to us in a timely manner or at satisfactory quality levels, our ability to bring products to market or deliver products to our customers, as well as our reputation, could suffer and our business and prospects could be materially harmed. In the event of any failure by our component manufacturers, we may have no readily available alternative source of supply for these components, since, in our experience, the lead time needed to establish a relationship with a new design or manufacturing partner is substantial, and the time for our OEM customers to re-qualify our products with components from a new vendor is also significant. Additionally, even if an alternative manufacturer is available, we may not be able to engage the manufacturer on acceptable terms, which could result in increased costs, timing requirements or other adverse changes. Further, we may not be able to redesign the customized components used in our products to be manufactured by a new manufacturer, in which case we could infringe on the intellectual property of our current design or manufacturing partner when we manufacture the products with a new design or manufacturing partner. Such an occurrence could force us to stop selling certain of our products or could expose us to lawsuits, license payments or other liabilities.

Our dependence on third-party manufacturers exposes us to many other risks, including, among others: reduced control over delivery schedules, quality, manufacturing yields and costs; the potential lack of adequate capacity during periods of excess demand; limited warranties on products supplied to us; and potential infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property or the intellectual property of others. We are dependent on our manufacturing partners to manufacture components with acceptable quality and manufacturing yields, to deliver these components to us on a timely basis and at an acceptable cost and to allocate a portion of their manufacturing capacity sufficient to meet our needs. However, these component manufacturers may not be able to achieve these tasks. Additionally, our manufacturing partners may not continue to devote adequate resources to produce our products or the component products we resell, or continue to advance the process design technologies on which the customer qualifications of our products are based. Any of these risks could limit our ability to meet customer demand and materially adversely affect our business and operating results.

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If our products or the component products we resell do not meet quality standards or are defective or used in defective systems, we may be subject to quality holds, warranty claims, recalls or liability claims.

Our customers require our products and the component products we resell to meet strict quality standards. If the products fail to meet these standards, our customers may discontinue purchases from us until we are able to resolve the quality issues that are causing these failures, which we may not be able to do. These “quality holds” can be costly and time-consuming to resolve. In addition, if the products we sell are defectively manufactured, contain defective components or are used in defective or malfunctioning systems, we could be subject to warranty and product liability claims, product recalls, safety alerts or advisory notices.

Although we generally attempt to contractually limit our exposure to incidental and consequential damages, if these contract provisions are not enforced or if liabilities arise that are not effectively limited, we could incur substantial costs in defending or settling product liability claims. While we currently have product liability insurance, it may not provide coverage under certain circumstances and it may not be adequate to satisfy claims made against us. We also may be unable to maintain insurance in the future at satisfactory rates or in adequate amounts.

Warranty and product liability claims, product “quality holds,” product recalls, safety alerts or advisory notices, regardless of their coverage by insurance or their ultimate outcome, could have a material adverse effect on our business, performance and financial condition, as well as our ability to attract and retain customers.

Our indemnification obligations for the infringement by our products of the rights of others could require us to pay substantial damages.

As is common in our industry, we have a number of agreements in which we have agreed to defend, indemnify and hold harmless our customers and suppliers from damages and costs that may arise from the infringement by our products of third-party patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights. The scope of these indemnities varies, the duration of these indemnities is generally perpetual after execution of an agreement, and the maximum potential amount of future payments we could be required to make under these indemnities is often unlimited. Any indemnification claims by customers could require us to incur significant legal fees and could potentially result in our payment of substantial damages, and our insurance generally would not cover these fees or damages. As a result, the occurrence of any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We depend on certain key employees, and our business could be harmed if we lose the services of any of these employees or are unable to attract and retain other qualified personnel.

To date, we have been highly dependent on the experience, relationships and technical knowledge of certain key employees. We believe our future success will be dependent on our ability to retain the services of these key employees, develop their successors and properly manage the transition of their roles should departures occur. The loss of these key employees or their inability to continue to provide their services could delay the development and introduction of new or enhanced products or technologies, negatively impact our ability to sell our existing products, limit our ability to pursue our other business goals and strategies and otherwise harm our business. We do not have employment agreements with any of our employees other than Chun K. Hong, our President, Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and sole member of our board of directors, and as a result most of our employees may terminate their employment with us at any time.

Our future success also depends on our ability to attract, retain and motivate highly skilled engineering, manufacturing and other technical and sales personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense. We may not be successful in attracting new engineers or other technical personnel or in retaining or motivating our existing personnel. If we are unable to hire and retain personnel with the skills necessary to keep pace with the evolving technologies in our markets, our ability to continue to provide our existing products and to develop new or enhanced products and technologies would be negatively impacted, which could harm our business. In addition, a general shortage of experienced engineers or other technical personnel could lead to increased recruiting, relocation and compensation costs to attract new recruits, which may increase our operating expenses or make these hires more difficult or impossible if increased recruiting costs exceed our resources.

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A significant portion of our workforce consists of contract personnel. We invest considerable time and expense to train these contract personnel; however, they typically may terminate their relationships with us at any time. As a result, we may experience high turnover rates in this contract personnel workforce, which may require us to expend additional resources to attract, train and retain replacements. Additionally, if we convert any of these contract personnel to permanent employees, we may have to pay finder’s fees to the contract agency. These risks associated with our contract personnel workforce may involve increased costs or delays or failures in meeting customer requirements or developing new or enhanced products or technologies, any of which could materially adversely affect our business and operating performance.

We are also subject to employment laws and regulations, including the changing regulatory landscape. For example, in California, State Assembly Bill 5 (“AB5”), which went into effect in January 2020, codifies a test to determine whether a worker is an employee under California law. AB5 provides a mechanism for determining whether workers of a hiring entity are employees or independent contractors, but AB5 does not result in any immediate change in how workers are classified. If the State of California, cities or municipalities, or workers disagree with how a hiring entity classifies workers, AB5 sets forth the test for evaluating their classification. The legal and other costs associated with any misclassification of our personnel can be substantial and could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We rely on our internal and third-party sales representatives to market and sell our products and the component products we resell, and any failure by these representatives to perform as expected could reduce our sales.

We primarily market and sell our products and the component products we resell through a direct sales force and a network of independent sales representatives. We have expended significant resources to build our internal sales and marketing function, but compared to many of our competitors, we have relatively little experience creating a sales and marketing platform and developing a team to implement it. We may be unsuccessful in these efforts.

Our sales representatives generally may terminate their relationships with us at any time. As a result, our performance depends in part on our ability to retain existing and attract additional sales representatives that will be able to effectively market and support our products or the component products we resell, especially in markets in which we have not previously distributed these products. Our efforts to attract, train and retain these sales representatives to be knowledgeable about our industry, products and technologies are costly and time-consuming. I